Social Enterprise Influence on Human Security through Social Capital building
Current Global Security context is critical, multi-faceted and multi-dimension. Globalization contributes to positive and negative externalities and problems which are inter-related politically, military, economically, socially, culturally as well as environmentally. The problems also carry out threats ranging from poverty threats, crimes, natural & man-made disasters, financial crises, international terrorism and increasingly intra-state conflicts which give risk to human life. The fundamental matter is that modern threats are non-conventional and traditional counter measures are unable to cope with it.
In addition, One of the most critical and increasingly debated concepts and practices is the shifting recognition of the State Security (threat to state and regime) to [Human Security] concept (threat to human, people and individual life). The concept is pointed out by Mahbuh Ul-Haq from United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Since a non-traditional security threat cannot be solely solved with isolation and conventional ways, a non conventional hybrid concept to solve the global security problems deserves important attention. ASEAN and states inside the regional security dimensions are also undergoing shifting or transformative paradigm from comprehensive security, collective security to human security paradigm as described by Prof. Amitav Acharya. The author is interested not only in the transformation of global security problems but also in the problem of the non-conventional solution of which most actors fail in formulating most effective, efficient yet sustainable concept to deal with the complex security problems.
In particular, the author has caught and observed that despite the evolving global security threat and crises, there are also emerging transformative potentials of [Social Enterprise] role as an organization that delivers social goals by using business principles creatively to sustain its mission. Therefore the goal of the study is to explore how Social Enterprise could influence human security through Social Capital building. The study is narrowed down, focused, and limited particularly to Social Enterprise at community level which potentially emerges not to give an alternative but a complementary solution to the multi-dimensionality of human security, by creating Social Capital as Robert Putnam and Coleman believe it enables and fosters many important social goods. Social Capital is also empirically studied as one of important components of security factors.
Through the direct field exploratory research and survey around several chosen case studies of ASEAN Social Enterprises, interview with more than 20 person, and 120 respondents relate to the research study. author uncovers a phenomenon that Social Enterprise promoted strong social capital which impact on human security development. The social enterprise development could significantly promote social capital and impact the development of human security and reduces many social problems if supported with the environment such as government policy, provided with incentives and regulation that support the growth of social entrepreneurs. Further research is suggested to the study on how Thai Social Enterprise Office in Thailand, India Social Enteprise, U.K & U.S Social Enterprise promoted the growth of Social Enteprise through policy and regulation.