China and the United States
Comparison of pension culture in cross-cultural context
Liu Jianan Yang Wei
China is currently in an aging society. According to UN standards: When a region over 60 years old reaches 10% of the total population, or 65 years old people make up 7% of the total population, the area is considered to be entering an aging society. In 1999, the population over 60 years old in China has reached 10.3%, marking the entry of China into an aging society. Depending on statistics, in 2015, the population aged 60 and over reached 222 million, accounting for 16.15% of the total population. It is estimated that by 2020, the elderly population will reach 248 million, and the aging level will reach 17.17%, of which the elderly population over 80 years old will reach 30.67 million; in 2025, the population over 60 will reach 300 million, becoming a super-old country. (Journal of Hunan Business College) Influenced by family planning, growing population life expectancy and dynamic age cumulative effects of population, from 2015 to 2060, China's population age structure will show a rapid expansion of the elderly population and a sustained proportion of the elderly population. The improvement and aging rate is much higher than other countries and other significant features. In the United States, also a big country, with the birth of the American baby boomer (1946-1964), the problem of aging in the United States is more prominent. It estimates that by 2030, the median age of the US population will exceed 40 years. In 2005, the population of the United States over 65 years old was 36.8 million, accounting for 12.4% of the total population. The problem of ageing should not be underestimated. (Report by the U.S. Census Bureau and the World Bank.)
It can be found that most countries in China and Western Europe tend to have a "social welfare view" while the United States tends to "a view of labor compensation." Behind the larger differences between Chinese and American pensions is a more promising approach to pensions. In countries with more developed old age industries, the United States has a similar degree of aging as China, compared to Japan, which is comparable to Japan in the East Asian Confucian cultural circle, or to some Western European countries that are over-reliant on government pensions. By studying different concepts of old age care, people may be able to get a glimpse of the real secret of the "old-age" of developed countries.
Confucius said: " seeing virtue and talent.Thinking of equalling them; seeing mistakes, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves." Since "the stone of the mountain can be utilized to attack jade", let us analyze the Sino-US pension literature and try to analyze China and the United States from a cross-cultural perspective. Differences in the concept of old age care and its impact on social life, especially the old age industry,
I. China's traditional concept of old age care
To compare the preconditions of the concept of pension in China and the United States, we must first understand the traditional concept of old age care in China. Traditional s such as "nurturing children and preventing old-age" can be divided into the following points:
1.1 The traditional concept of "nurturing children and preventing old age,".
Child-rearing is a traditional concept of old age care for raising children's economy and life by relying on their children. In China, the tradition of thousands of years is tantamount to raise children and prevent old age. The concept of "but to save the land, to keep the children" is an objective reflection of the economic backwardness and patriarchal attitudes for thousands of years. At the same time, due to the small scope of social security for the elderly in rural China (according to the "China Agricultural Development Report 2005" released by the Ministry of Agriculture, the total population of China in 2003 was 1.25227 billion, of which the rural population was 937.51 million, generally referred to as 9 Billion farmers. However, according to the White Paper on China's Social Security Status and Policies issued in 2004, as of the end of 2003, only 1,870 counties (cities, districts) in China have carried out rural social endowment insurance work to varying degrees, a total of 5,428. 10,000 people participate in insurance. ), and the level is low. (From the beginning of 2003, the central government has allocated special subsidies to farmers in the central and western regions who participate in new types of cooperative medical care, except for urban areas, with an annual subsidy of 10 yuan per capita. The subsidy for participating farmers is not less than 10 yuan per capita per year.) The elderly are mainly supported by children in the family, so the concept of raising children and preventing old-age is very common in rural areas.
In fact, this concept is no longer part suitable for today's society. The family of the only child after the 80s is often a "four-two-one" family structure. Pension is already a very heavy burden, and some families even live for. Children are a luxury, not to refer to the implementation of the "second child policy", which is very unfavorable for China's population restructuring. However, children're support for the elderly and their children's income are mutually exclusive. Especially in rural areas, most of the children work in the second and third tier cities, and it is obviously unrealistic to call on them to bring the elderly around. Then, can we start from changing the concept of the social pension and cultivate the independent old-age habits of the elderly?
In recent years, the academic concept of the old age care for the elderly has generally been operated from the dependence and independence of the old age security, which means the elderly's understanding of their own old age security and the dependence and independence of the elderly. From the point of view of the issue of old age security, it can be specifically classified as relying on the society for the elderly, relying on the children and supporting the elderly on their own.
Experts compared the willingness of parents of urban and rural single-child parents to find that the willingness to support the elderly is largely affected by the family's economic situation. Parents of the individual child in rural areas are more inclined to support their children. The traditional culture between China and other countries is very different. Whether it is moral or legal, it is an unshakable responsibility for children to support their children. In Europe and the United States, social security is more comprehensive. More old people rely mainly on social pensions and do not need to rely too much on their children.
1.2 Emerging "to raise a house with a house, to support the elderly"
Housing for the elderly is based on the resources, the difference between the housing life cycle and the survival of the elderly, the huge real estate resources for the elderly, especially the value of the housing after the death of people, through certain financial or non-financial mechanisms The integration will be realized in advance. Realizing the flow of value, for the aging to establish a long-term, sustained, stable and even life-long cash inflow during the rest of their lives.
In layman's terms, the old man mortgages the property under his name to the insurance company. In the case, that the property rights and use rights of the house are still owned by the elderly, the insurance company pays the pension to the elderly on a monthly basis according to the value of the property until the elderly Death. After the death of the elderly, the insurance company obtains the right to dispose of the mortgaged property, and the proceeds will be utilized to pay the pension-related expenses.
In fact, as early as 2013, the State Council proposed encouraging the implementation of the reverse mortgage insurance for the elderly housing pilots. In 2014 and 2016, two batches were piloted in some cities across the country. From the pilot situation, business development is not ideal. As of the end of June 2018, only two insurance companies in the country had carried out in related business, and 139 elderly people in 98 households completed the underwriting procedures.
Why is it difficult to enforce? Real estate concept, and the relocation of land
Property is the largest pension asset with limited income. Due to the influence of traditional ideas, it is generally accepted that the previous generation's "unlimited" dedication to the next generation is justified. Even if the old parents have not passed away, the children will begin to discuss how to transfer the property rights of the old parents and how to distribute the "heritage" (including property and deposits) of the aged parents. Obviously, in the eyes of many Chinese grandchildren, the property and deposits of parents and grandparents should be reserved for future generations, especially if the property must be reserved for future generations, and old people should never sell or transfer others. Therefore, such a customary concept will surely severely constrain or obstruct the normal promotion of the Chinese insurance version of the "house-to-house" market.
The basic reason is that the reform and improvement of the social security system are still on the road. The elderly are not economically independent and independent.
Therefore, this concept of old-age care that is being vigorously promoted cannot fundamentally change the status qua of our country, because not all people can support high mortgage expenses, so an effective way of providing for the elderly is worthy of us. Think about it.
The cultural roots of the above-mentioned ideas stem from the traditional Chinese old age pension culture and spread to the entire Confucian cultural circle.
Respecting the old and respecting the old-age as China's excellent traditional culture originated from the Spring and Autumn Period, and it has penetrated into all aspects of social life through the development of various generations and has become an important ideological foundation for traditional social pension. The concept of respecting the old and respecting the elderly stems from family ethics and has a very close relationship with filial piety. It refers to how to treat the elderly in the traditional Chinese culture, to respect the elderly, to maintain harmony, participation and care for the whole life and the family society. The theory of due diligence. This is about to be a "filial piety" as the way to govern the country, with the theory of "filial piety." Respecting the old and the elderly is not only an important part of the traditional Chinese Confucian ritual system, but also the traditional virtue of the Chinese nation, which has been reflected in all ages in China. For example, during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, Confucius, the founder of Confucianism and the great thinker of China, attached serious importance to filial piety. When answering the question of filial piety, Confucius said: "The filial piety of today is to be raise. As for the dog and horse, they can all raise, disrespect, why not." ("The Analects of Confucius"), he believes that pension is not only necessary To meet the low-level needs of the elderly, such as food and clothing, we must also meet their spiritual needs and make them happy; the Han Dynasty "treat the world with filial piety" and regard filial piety as the theoretical basis for governing the country, and in our words today, it has the status of "national policy". It not only makes the theory of filial piety common, but also praises the filial piety, the filial piety, and the filial piety; the concept of filial piety that respects the old-age permeates all aspects of social life in the Song Dynasty, and even has the meaning of "one-vote veto" in measuring one's social morality.
Respecting the old and respecting the elderly is a unique product under the influence of Chinese Confucian culture. Respecting the reflection of morality and wisdom, adhering to the principle of humanity, the concept of respect for the elderly contains the traditional virtues of harmony and the concept of gratitude. In ancient time, the concept of respect for the elderly made the elderly rely on the natural age advantage. Through traditional experience and words and deeds, traditional agricultural production techniques were to be sent down from generation to generation, maintaining China's agricultural production and safeguarding the people's food and clothing sources. In modern times, the principle of humanity in respecting the concept of respect for the elderly is also reflected in the old age security system and the "five guarantees" policy of contemporary society in China. The concept of respecting the elderly regulates family relations and handles social contradictions at the level of morality and social opinion, and it is of enormous help to solve the problem of raising the country.
II. Analysis of American pension concept
As a case of early progress and more successful industrialization, American pension is what is its mainstream pension concept. What can be drawn from China's hidden ageing crisis?
1.1"Reluctant welfare state" - Yanjin's pension assistance review and modest assistance
The United States adopts a unified and strict pension assistance review. In the 1980s, when President Reagan was located in office, he had reformed the eligibility for pensions in the United States. He stipulated that all applicants for pension assistance must go through a rigorous household survey to investigate the aggregate assets and labor income of the applicant. Applicant's cash, savings, checks, pensions, and some physical things such as food, shelter, etc. Only those who have passed the household survey to meet the application requirements are eligible for some pension relief policies.
Compared with China's tendency to support the elderly under the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the government has lowered or even no threshold to provide old age assistance. As well as the high pension benefits provided by Western countries such as the Greek public pension policy, the United States strictly examines the applicant's total assets and labor income, such as the applicant's cash, savings, checks, pensions and some Physical objects such as food, shelter, etc. Only those who have passed the household survey to meet the application requirements are eligible for some pension relief policies. On the whole, the US federal government's pension support is very limited.
At the same time, the old age assistance in the United States is rational and modest. US food stamps (food stamps). In order to assist the poor to buy food, the US federal government issued a food stamp in 1964, which is a "food stamp" with a face value in the United States. According to the federal government's latest revision of the food stamp program, each social bottom citizen can become a beneficiary group as long as it complies with the requirements. A family can receive a $200 coupon each month. The US food stamp program is actually part of the federal government's social assistance program. According to the regulations, food stamps canbe used for other purposes or sold. It can only be used in government-designated stores to purchase designated food, which is foods that maintain a basic standard of living.
The beneficiaries of the food stamp program are low-income people, which have certain qualification restrictions for beneficiaries. The food stamp program ensures the ability of low-income families to obtain food and improve their living standards and nutrition through food and nutrition assistance. The level provides the basic guarantee for food security. The subsequent phase of food vouchers is mainly food and table staples, which is conducive to promoting the effective consumption of agricultural products. According to the Food Voucher Act of 1964, its legislative purpose is to enhance the agricultural economy and improve the nutritional level of low-income families. The goal of "strengthening the agrarian economy" indicates that the food voucher project itself is a policy of strong farmers and benefit farmers. In addition, the implementation of the food stamp program has reduced the food expenses of the beneficiary households, which is equivalent to increasing the income of these households, enhancing their ability to consume additional commodities, and expanding the function of domestic demand.
The US pension security review system fully reflects the spirit of equality and independence emphasized by American culture. Standardize standards, strictly implement audits, and provide assistance on an equal basis. In comparison, it can be observed that the American concept of pensioning advocates the independence of the elderly and pursues fairness and justice among people of different incomes.
1.2 Individualism and the admiration of private property: the self-reliance and self-reliance of the American anti-poverty trend
Since the founding of the People's Republic, the United States has always adopted an ethical and punitive rescue policy for the elderly (low-income people), advocated individual social responsibility and the limited responsibility of the government, and thus the poverty alleviation policy has not made great progress. The social welfare and pension security system in the United States have developed slowly.
Until the economic crisis of 1929, after President Roosevelt took office, he promulgated the "Social Security Law" in 1935, and gradually introduced a number of policy projects aimed at poverty alleviation. By the 1960s, he had basically built a relatively sound " Social safety net mechanism; but unlike Europe. The United States has a strong paternalistic cultural outlook, and this is an important factor in determining the direction of welfare policy. In the 1970s and 1980s, due to the economic downturn and the conservative shift of politics, society and culture, the US anti-poverty policy began to enter the stage of adjustment and reform, gradually moving from "rights welfare" to "work welfare", and anti-poverty policy design has been working hard. Seek a balance between "alleviating poverty" and "promoting work".
The United States tends to reduce its budget for social welfare, reduce pension expenses and encourage work, focus on increasing employment. In 1980, Republican Reagan took office, reformed the original social welfare system, cut the federal social welfare plan to cut social welfare expenditures, and transferred the federal government's responsibility for collective security to state and local governments to promote private and community welfare. Development of. In terms of societal assistance, the measures taken are to reduce assistance and encourage work.
Tracing back to the folk origins of America's unique concept of old age care, we must talk about the individualistic liberal social Darwinism in American culture and their cultural source - transcendentalism.
The concept of individualism has roughly three characteristics: focus on the spirit, emphasize individuality and promote self-reliance. As a source of individualism, the core view of Transcendentalism holds that individuals have the capacity to transcend feelings and reason and directly understand the truth. Under the guidance of this kind of thinking, transcendentalists focus on the importance of the individual.
As one of the cores of the American spirit, liberalism also affects all aspects of contemporary life. The "modern" liberals were separated from the original classical liberalism, arguing that the government should use tax collection to provide the minimum amount of material welfare. Under the influence of transcendentalism, liberalism attaches importance to the spirit, emphasizes the sacredness of personality and human spirit, and also advocates the self-reliance of individuals and nations. Emphasis on the concept of individual and personal values, to promote people's attention to the spirit, to think independently, not to succumb to the opinions of the majority. The Transcendentalism Movement is a very weighty ideological movement in the history of the United States. It can also serve as said to be the first truly ideological revolutionary movement in American history.
Social Darwinism is a social theory that applies the idea of natural selection in Darwin's theory of evolution to human society. Dickens divided social Darwinism into three factions: the first is tantamount to regard human social organization as an organism. Like other biological organisms, it seems to undergo development and change. The second meaning is built on human biological inheritance. Regularity, formulate corresponding eugenics and prenatal education policies, such as eugenics proposed by Pearson; the third meaning is "negative social Darwinism." This division points out the correct aspects of social Darwinism and thus has significant academic significance. This is a successful defense of social Darwinism in the international scholarly community.
Just as Newton ruled the science of the 17th century of discovering the laws governing objects in the universe, Charles Darwin ruled the science of the 19th century by discovering the laws governing the evolution of mankind itself. Darwinism's emphasis on the survival and survival of the best fits perfectly with the tendencies of the time. Politically, this period is the moment when Bismarck's "iron" unified Germany. Nationalist critics of various countries believe that Darwinism has given their support and justification. They believe that in political activities, as in nature, the strongest is the winner, and the quality of belligerence determines who will win in the international "survival struggle." At this time in China, it is precisely because of the fall of the home country that it has gradually set in the "savings and saves" activities. In economic life, this is a time of free business and vulgar individualism. The comfortable, contented upper and middle classes strongly oppose any intervention by the state to promote greater social equality. They argue that they deserve happiness and success because they have proved that they are more "fit" than the incompetent poor.
The reason why Darwin's doctrine was prevalent on the social scene was simple. They seemed to be provide scientific support for materialism prevailing throughout Europe. In short, Darwinism fits well with Kipling's famous saying that those who have the authority should gain something, and those who can get it should keep it.
The values promoted by the above-mentioned cultural traditions have had a profound impact on the political, economic and cultural life of the United States, especially in the early colonial period, and its impact was more prominent. At the time, Americans believed that generous relief to the poor would make them lazy; crowded psychiatric institutions and prisons would only cause more harm to others; a substantial increase in the minimum wage would only make some low-wage employees a temporary dismissal. By. Americans place greater emphasis on equal opportunities. Jefferson believes that by giving land and education to all American citizens, the danger in class society can be eliminated. Some people likened it to a race. When people were given a specified land and education, they were on the same starting line, the so-called "equal opportunity", so people can completely succeed through their own efforts. Realize your own ideals. Therefore, the concept of old age care in the United States is strongly influenced by the values embedded in the hearts of Americans.
The difference in the concept of old age care between China and the United States is tantamount to observe the world outlook after the huge differences in pensions between China and the United States. However, as a subjective cognition and psychological tendency, the concept of "pension" still has to be based on a specific political economy. Therefore, this article will objectively draw some inspirations from the differences between Chinese and American pension concepts:
First, encourage independent and neutral concept of old age care on the basis of vigorously promoting the culture of respecting the elderly and respecting the elderly. In many modern families, there are juvenile delinquents that do not respect the elderly, are unwilling to bear the responsibility of providing for the elderly, discrimination against and abuse the elderly. Under such circumstances, if there is no compelling respect for the elderly, or the initiative is not strong, it is very It is difficult to imagine that the elderly can support their days.
However, relying on the family alone cannot completely resolve the problem of old age care that is becoming more complicated with the development of society. On the basis of vigorously promoting the culture of respecting the elderly and respecting the elderly, we encourage independent and sovereign concept of old age care, which is conducive to the spirit of self-improvement. While learning from the American pension insurance system, China should strengthen respect for the elderly and the elderly on the basis of personality independence, equality of human rights and mutual respect. Building a concept of old age suitable for the new era.
Second, we must understand the differences between China and the United States in terms of social systems and peculiar national conditions while establishing a diversified pension security system. Drawing on the detours that the United States has taken with regard to the issue of old age care, it is clear that the American concept of pension is not necessarily the most advanced and most suitable for us. The long-term strictness of pension admission standards that are not reasonably changed according to specific circumstances has made the living standards of the poor in the United States not significantly improved over the years, the gap between the rich and the poor has increased, and social differentiation has intensified, which is not conducive to providing a good atmosphere for social and economic construction. Based on this understanding, we will learn the most innovative American pension system, and establish a scientific pension assistance review, rescue and social pension insurance system. More encouragement of independent pension through pensions, while the government on the basis of pension relief to establish a more comprehensive and comprehensive security system.
Finally, I hope that we can learn from the dialectical and reasonable reference to the experience and lessons of the United States, and in the process of reforming and developing the socialist pension security system with Chinese characteristics, we can change the relatively backward pension culture software and establish a diversified pension security system; Improve management and operational efficiency.
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