Art Nouveau - Glasgow Style
Found in England, Art Nouveau was truly the first international design style. The Glasgow Style is usually linked with the Art Nouveau period. The Art Nouveau movement was characterized by stylized, flowing, and curvilinear design that included floral motif. It took various style from oriental, rococo and Celtic art. Art Nouveau was essentially a rebellion against Victorian design. It is easy indulge in Art Nouveau as the decadents did. The decadents developed a hierarchy of nymphlets and goddesses. It became the first commercial art that beautified industry products. One critic wrote that Art Nouveau was one of the imaginative style in the history of design. Glasgow Style was developed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, a Scotsman, who was inspired by Celtic ornament. The Glasgow Style was a rejection of the most Art Nouveau's motif for a more functional design. It broke away from the flowing style and introduced "cubic style." The Glasgow Style focused on geometric relationship between the whole and its part. As a result, the Glasgow Style became the standard for modern style and opened pathways for geometric design.
Charles R. Mackintosh
Mackintosh was a Scottish architect and designer and the creator of the Glasgow Style. He was born in Glasgow on June 7, 1868. He attended the Allan Glen's School, which taught many famous pupils such as Lord Todd and George Wyllie. At the age of 16, he was apprenticed to John Hutchinson, an architect. At the same time, he became a draughtsman for Honeyman and Keppie and eventually became a partner in 1901. He attended the Glasgow School of Art and met his future wife, Margaret Macdonald. Mackintosh's style focused on restraint and economy. He favored simple form and natural materials instead of embellishment. He also favored the use of texture, light and shadow against patterns and ornaments. Asian style and modernist's idea were also an influence in Mackintosh's work. He wanted to build art around the needs of the people rather than vice-versa. After his death, his work became increasingly noticed. The Glasgow School of Art was renamed the Mackintosh's building and is said to be one of the finest buildings in the United Kingdom.