In Chapter 4, "Behavior Support", the authors (Janney & Snell) stress the importance of effective social skills and friendship development in all children and how these skills should be taught just like the other academic skills. They offer many strategies for adapting social skills for children with severe cognitive disabilities.
The authors state that students with serious behavior problems lack social and self management skills. They also lack the ability to manage their own emotions and behavior as well as get along with others. Children should learn to solve problems encountered in their daily lives. A behavior support plan should include plans to help the child to manage his own behavior and emotions as well as increase the student's interpersonal skills.
The author gives a brief introduction to methods and curricula for teaching social and self management skills. Some of the more popular social skills curricula mentioned were:
- Skillstreaming In Early Childhood teaching Prosocial Skills to Preschool and Kindergarten Children (McGinnis& Goldstein, 1990)
- Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 1984
- Skillsstreaming the Adolescent ( Goldstein, Sprafkin, Gershaw, & Klein, 1980)
- The Walker Social skills Curriculum: the ACCEPTS Program (Walker et al., 1983)
- ASSET: A Social skills Program for Adolescents (Hazel, Schumaker, Sherman, & Sheldon-Wildgen, 1981)
In Chapter 3, "Social Relationships and Peer Relationship ", the authors continue to discuss social relationships in students. They describe some proven strategies for facilitating social relationship between students who have disabilities and their peers.
In chapter 4, the authors (Janney & Snell), states that the teaching strategies used to promote effective social skills include direct instruction. The strategies also include incidental teaching in natural contexts where social skills come into play.
Some possible adaptation mentioned in the chapter were: simplifying the language, reduce the number of steps, script the role play , provide additional modeling to aide in memory retention and the use of pictures cues for skill steps.
These adaptations really help with my students; I use the picture cues and modeling strategies.
In Chapter 3, Social relationships and Peer Support, the authors Snell and Janney, also share more information about modeling and role-playing.
Chapter 13, "Problem- Solving Case Studies" by Chandler & Dalquist was a great chapter because it made me really think. It gave me the chance to read case studies and determine if the student's behavior should be identified as challenging or not. If the behavior was considered a challenging behavior, should it be changed using functional assessment and intervention model described?
One study was about a student named Cherri. The teacher found Cherri's behaviors to be challenging and she wanted the consultant to develop interventions to stop Cherri's behaviors. During the writing task, Cherri would tap her pencil five times after each answer, then move on to the next question, clear her throat, say, "I'm sorry" ,sit quietly, and stare ahead. The students ignored Cherri's behavior.
Andy would tell her to be quiet (tactile and auditory stimulation) and then her peers would say, "It's okay, just be quiet"
The consultant did note the context in which the behaviors happened and consequences for the behaviors. She completed an ABC recording (Antecedents and Setting, Behavior, and Consequence)
The behavior consultant observed Cherri in class and she noted the behaviors identified by the teacher (tapping desk, blowing air, rubbing leg, rocks in chair and taking apart the pen.) The consultant also observed several examples of appropriate behaviors (work completion, answering questions, waiting her turn, present her project, ask questions and claps for presenters when they are finished.)
After reading the case study, I did not think the student displayed challenging behaviors. Cherri's behavior did not harm anyone, stop her or her peers from learning or hinder positive social interactions and relationships.
A challenging is defined as behavior that (1) interferes with the student's learning or the learning of other individuals, (2) hinders positive social interactions and relationships, or (3) harms the student, peers, adult, or family members (Bailey & Woley, 1992; Chandler Dahlquist, 1998).
Some of the behaviors helped Cherri to think and function in class.
I thought Cherri's behavior served the purpose of self- stimulatory/sensory.
This study was very interesting and informative.