how are teenagers' influenced by their neighborhood?
Adolescence is believed to be the most crucial period in a person's life with a wide range of challenges and alterations. In this stage, juvenile turn up a variety of changes including vigorous physical development, psychological adjustment and initially formed personality. All of teenagers' changes are predominantly influenced by the people around them, significantly family and peers. To specific, the following essay will compare the impact of parents and friends on youngsters' maturity.
The primary direct threats to adolescent health are deviant behaviour. When it comes to family, children who live with parents smoking or drinking heavily tend to imitate what their parents do. The reports in 2004 indicate that parents who less than high school degree are 22% more likely to smoke than those with at least a Bachelor's degree. It means that the academic level of the parent is related to the level in which young people have access to cigarettes and alcohol. Besides parenting aspect, peer environment is likely to influence adolescents' substance use and violent behaviour. An outstanding example is that teenager's suicidal behaviour may induce a sharp rise in suicidal thinking and actions among his or her friends (Brent et al., 1993; Robbins & Convoy, 1983). However, deficient parental monitoring (Dishion & Loeber, 1985), parent's bad habit (Chassin, Rogosch & Barrera, 1991) and interaction among family members ( Windle, 1999) influence the teenager significantly more than friends do. Since most young people ( 66%) still live with their parents, parents play a dominant role in their health behaviours (Musgrove, 1967).
Academic performance is another element making a difference in the influence of family and friends on youths. Friends have a positive influence on youngsters' school performance. Associating with peers was asserted to enhance students' school satisfaction ( Ryan, 2000). Thus, friends will help teenagers to be more motivated. Unlike peers, parents with their style of upbringing affect on children's academic performance both positively and negatively. Authoritative parents who are caring, sensitive to the need of children give children a positive image of themselves; therefore, children can acquire high academic success ( Klarin, 2006; Berk, 2008). In contrast, adolescents living in a negative family environment are likely to have poor academic performance. In 2016 Education and Teacher Training Agency, Ines Blazevic reported that the parents who are emotionally withdrawn and distant from children's behaviour can result in a lack of supervision and teenagers' poor academic achievement. Besides, children who receive less family support more tend to be bullied at school especially primary school ( Dr. Anne-Laura van Harmelen, 2016). In reality, having a negative family environment and being intimidated at school create a double drawback for teenagers to experience more severe symptoms of depression in their late teens ( Dr. Anne-Laura van Harmelen, 2016).
A third aspect differentiating the influence of family and friends on adolescents is decision-making. In terms of important decisions such as academic and career choices, teenagers are more likely to be affected by parents than friends. Because crucial decisions are often tough, adolescents tend to seek advice and opinions from people having considerable experience. Therefore, parents will be a better choice. Wilks (1986) pointed out that parental guidance was most valued in areas involving educational and vocational decisions. On the other hand, for daily decisions related to club memberships and dress, peers seem to have a stronger impact on the young than families. Since young people usually conduct these activities with their age-mates in place of parents, they may have greater respect for friends' thoughts and emotions. For example, youngsters tend to participate in voluntary clubs in which their friends join.
In conclusion, teenagers' health, academic performance and decision are three principal aspects affected profoundly by their family and companions. It is undeniable that parents frequently have an impact on youth's manners as well as decision-making more strongly than friends. Whereas, a few of adolescents whose parents have low knowledge level or whose family is in difficult circumstances also need the help of friends to study better.