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Essay on Development of Nuclear activities in Iran


west_sher 1 / -  
Oct 27, 2007   #1
Can anybody check this coursework and give feedback?

Introduction

The previous century was called the Industrial Era, where many countries were developing very rapidly at all industrial spheres. Now the whole world is facing a new era called Nuclear age, where the nuclear energy has become very essential issue for the countries all over the world. During the last 50 years the largest continents of the world consume a lot of energy such as fossil fuel, solar and hydro plant energy sources that are not enough to cover the demands of the consumers. Thus biggest and most developed countries with high population density such as U.S, Canada, Russia, China, and other countries in Europe are using nuclear reactors to provide their citizens with electricity and for other energy purposes. However the nuclear programs development has it's limits, because nuclear activities can also be used to create atomic bombs, with the aim for the self defense of the countries from war invasion. This reason can be accepted somehow, but it carries a lot of risk and such bombs carry a huge mass destruction force which can kill millions of people. The second biggest problem may occur if such weapons will be on the hands of the terrorists. For the past decades, terrorism has been developed gradually and spread out through the whole world with such groups like Talibans, South American Guerillas forces, Al Qaeda etc. In the given case, nowadays Iran has been gradually increasing their effort towards the development of nuclear power related activities to provide their citizens with electricity. UN Security Council has been analyzing the Iran's nuclear development program, and they have found out that Iran had been secretly developing undeclared enrichment technology activities over two decades without informing the IAEA about its activities. So this suspicious activity has created doubts against Iran about what is really going on the Natanz nuclear power station located in Iran. UN SC is worried that Iran might be creating bombs in the bunkers of the Nazran. In order to solve this International dispute the UN SC and IAEA have made sanctions against this development and they are trying to stop nuclear program of Iran without military invasion. The problem is considered to be remote, because they don't need to start war, because similar sanctions were applied against Iraq in 2002 which ended up with the failure. War is not the only way to solve such political dilemmas, that's why the International Alternative Dispute Resolution (IADR) strategy used by UN SC comes in role to negotiate the problem in peaceful manner so that it is both beneficial for both parties instead of starting military invasion by killing people and destruction of the country.

The U.N SC has applied a resolution 1737 (2006) enforcing Iran to stop the development of the nuclear program. Iran has started developing the nuclear program since 1950's when the country was ruled by the Shah . At those times U.S had a good relationships with the Shah of the Iran, as soon as the Shah past away in 1979, the development has been stopped because of the difficulties occurred after ruined regime of the Shah . Now at present time Iran again started to develop the nuclear technology program under the control of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a former president of the country. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and UN Security Council suspects Iran in developing the weapons of mass destruction from the uranium, by making ballistic missiles and atomic bombs. This type of global risks must be eliminated as soon as possible before these weapons reach the terrorist groups hands. The IAEA is claiming Iran to stop the proliferation-sensitive nuclear activities in order to maintain peace and good relations with UN Security Council members U.S.A, Russia, China, France and U.K which are presently involved in this program.

In this assignment we will discuss the effectiveness of the UN Resolution 1737 (2006) which is applied to Iran by IAEA, on how it will effect and change the global situation in the world and in Iran's government.

BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM
Iran's problem has been shaken because they have been secretly developing undeclared enrichment technology activities over two decades concealing them from all other nations . This is worrying, as for the majority of the UN SC countries it appears to be risky if Iran creates weapons of mass destruction such as atomic bombs and short-range warheads which can be used against them. Nowadays Iran is one the best known exporter of small arms such as ballistic missiles and artillery rockets . Iran has been suspected that it is supporting Hezbollah militants in Lebanon which are collaborating with Palestinians who are conflicting with the Israelis. More significantly, Iran is suspected in collaboration with the Shiite army in Iraq, who are fighting and bombing the streets of Iraq killing and damaging a lot of lives . However, the exports of small arms (ballistic missiles, rockets) and related materials by Iran to the neighbor countries are not considered to be the main point in applying the resolution. The main bothering problem is the development of the nuclear program, as said before Iran may create nuclear bombs and other weapons of mass destruction. The main issue which proves this thought is that "Iran planning to build nuclear power station under the cover of a civilian atomic energy program saying it only wants to generate electricity"- says Mohamed ElBaradei, director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

This strategy makes people doubtful that nuclear power stations will be used for civilian purposes which is pretty suspicious, because Iran has already started the development program in the early 1950's till 1979's. This amount of time must be fairly enough to come up with a good research to build a nuclear power station to supply the country with electricity, but they still keep developing it from 2003 till present, which makes everyone doubtful about what is Iran actually planning to research. The next step of the enrichment of uranium is the "proliferation", which can be used either to generate electricity or to make weapons of mass destruction with the addition of heavy water. Heavy water is used for the operation of the nuclear reactors, used as moderator and heat transfer agent. It is not radioactive and not harmful for the humans. In the mids-2005, the nuclear-related enrichment activity was steadily making progress by enriching the 5% of the uranium with proportion of 235units which can be used for generating energy. This amount of uranium is at weapon grade material which means it is fairly enough to create 90% of the atomic bomb.

In order to stop this process the U.N Security Council (SC) and IAEA are applying the resolutions to eliminate such risks occurring from Iran, and Iran has already been warned by UN SC to stop the nuclear activities till August 31 (2006) by applying Resolution 1696(2006), claiming them to stop the enrichment activities. In case if Iran fails the terms of the resolution, a war was promised to be started against Iran by U.S so that the U.S will have a full control over the nuclear program of the country. In fact this resolution has been ignored by Iran. The second chance was given to Iran by the UN SC and IAEA, but Iran was charged with the new applied resolution 1737, which is stricter and has many barriers set to the export and import of the Iran.

On December 23, 2006 the UNSC generally adopted Resolution 1737. The new resolution which is adopted to Iran is based upon with the failure of the previous resolution which was set before (1696), by claiming Iran to suspend it's all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, including research and development proliferation activities with the uranium. The terms and the demands of the new resolution 1737 have remained the same as 1696 but it is slightly different and stricter then previous one. The present resolution contains a possibly greater potential for argument and may bear directly on possibility of a military strike on Iran.

UN Resolution 1737
This resolution stated that Iran has failed the cooperation with the United Nations inspectors in IAEA by breaking the rules set by the IAEA. The resolution requires Iran to suspend the nuclear development program to maintain peaceful relations with IAEA. Iran shall not delay the required sanctions put by the IAEA including all the enrichment related and research activities, and also the research and development. In addition working with the heavy water which is used for the research and construction of the nuclear reactor must be stopped immediately, plus all the enrichment-related, and heavy water technologies are abandoned to be exported and sold to the other countries. The resolution also mentions that all States must freeze their funds, financial assets and economic resources which are helping by providing support for the development of the nuclear program of Iran. The education and the training process which is related to proliferation nuclear sensitive activities must be stopped. The IAEA Board of Governors mention that all these sanctions are set to Iran is at high diplomatic level, and IAEA guarantees that is running this process for exclusively peaceful purposes and states that these decree's will be beneficial for Iran itself. IAEA has set deadline to this resolution for Iran to adopt this resolution until the 60 days after it's been set on December 23, 2006 . In addition to the above mentioned provisions, UN SC puts a ban on any export of the arms from Iran and calls upon all states to control and reduce the transfer of arms into Iran.

The arms embargo of the Resolution 1737 on Iran.
The resolution 1737 also features such sanction which requires Iran to stop all their exports and imports of the weapons they produce. The type of weapons for today exports of the Iran are ballistic missiles and artillery rockets as mentioned above in previous paragraphs. However these sales of arms abroad by Iran were not in huge amounts relatively to the Western exporters of arms, and the facts were not properly investigated, therefore the real amount of exports of arms by Iran are not proved by any agency.

On the other hand, the official reason for putting an embargo on arms is that Iran was suspected in supporting various anti government groups such as Hezbollah and Shiiti in the Persian and Middle-East countries, who are fighting against their own countries or participating in the freedom and radical movements. The U.S is aware of all these actions of Iran, and it is obviously seen that Iran is opposing the U.S policy, due to the fact that Iran supports countries which oppose the policy of the United States. Therefore, being the member of U.N SC, United States claims the Security Council of the United Nations to put an embargo on arms, which means any arm including the not-yet created atomic bombs to stop from being exported.

Financial Sanctions
This sanction claims Iran to suspend all their financial transactions related to the nuclear program development. All the capital and economic resources which were used for nuclear program by the government of Iran must be frozen; in addition "any" financial transactions which are related to the nuclear program must be suspended. This sanction concerns the Iran's biggest organizations of the nuclear program in the country, such as research and production sites at Esfahan, the nuclear research center at Karaj, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), associated with Kavoshyar Company and the Novin Energy Company. This sanction does not concern the humanitarian and other development programs of the government of Iran. It is mainly focused on the nuclear development program .

The objectives of the U.N Security Council Resolution 1737
The main purpose of the resolution applied to Iran is that SC is trying to solve the dispute by peaceful and diplomatic means, so that the countries may have the chance to negotiate and come up to universally supported and mutually accepted decision. By adopting the resolution and imposing the abovementioned sanctions, the Security Council is attempting to resolve the dispute in peaceful manner so that Iran obeys the rules set by IAEA about the limitations of the nuclear development program, which are, in fact, supported by whole International community. Also the Security Council is demonstrating how such disputes can be solved in a peaceful way by avoiding war. The reason for the creation of innovated resolution is that they are trying to avoid the previous resolution which was applied to Iraq, which ended up with failure and abuse where a lot of innocent people were killed. However the main objective of the UN SC is to maintain peace in the world. One of the main objectives and the role of the Council are to avoid violence and threats to the international peace (war).Without adoption the resolution 1737 a war could have been started in Iran. The U.S is completely against the actions of Iran and ready to eliminate this dispute using military force and end Iran's nuclear program development once and for all at any cost. There is no other proposed by U.S who is very powerful and developed country at any sphere who can be the worst and unbeatable enemy. Therefore, Iran must use the opportunity to negotiate with UN SC Resolution to avoid military invasion initiated by U.S or other members of the Security Council.

Effectiveness of the Resolution 1737
If Iran adopts the resolution 1737, the resolution will affect the whole economy of country. Iran's huge salary from exports of the small arms will be banned by the resolution. Also Iran will face problems with the unemployment of people who used to work in the research facilities in the nuclear stations. The overall GDP of the country will slightly decrease after the adoption of the resolution, because an export of arms is not that small business comparing to other businesses. The amounts they selling must be delivering huge amount of profits. But Iran is known as world biggest exporters of crude oil. This is their alternative resource where they can make billions of money instead of starting war and ruining relationship with UN Security Council, IAEA and U.S, especially with Russia and China with whom Iran is collaborating with exchanging goods. Although there is a fact that not only Iran will suffer from the causes of the resolution but their neighbor countries as well. The entire Middle-East and Persian market is interrelated amongst each other and each transit of exported or imported goods passes through Iran's boarders. Especially, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan will suffer, because they import many goods from UAE (Dubai) which comes through Iran to neighbor countries by trailers. This dilemma will create even bigger dispute than Iran's nuclear development program, which would also be a problematic issue for the UN.

The effectiveness of the innovated resolution is not guaranteed, since it is quite uncertain whether Iranian government shall adopt it. This is due to the facts that Iran has much to lose from this resolution. First of all Iran's nuclear enrichment program have been developing since 1950's and still has not yet come till the end. Also Iran did not break the main rules of IAEA in creating atomic bombs, and they will not allow its right to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes to be taken away. At the same time the idea that Iran creates weapons of mass destruction has not been proved yet, it just an assumption that Iran is planning to create them. The point is that this does not give a reason to start war in Iran, as it was in the example of Iraq. The resolution which was applied to Iraq did not work at all, it only killed many people and not a single atomic bomb was found in any nuclear power plants in Iraq. The resolution might be effective if the SC removes some sanctions, such as the embargo on the sales of arms. The resolution carries to many restrictions, which makes it not beneficial for Iran. UN SC must adopt a new and more beneficial resolution to Iran so that both parties will agree and come with a mutual agreement. So initially we can say that this resolution is ineffective to the present dispute. Because Iran had failed to adopt the previous resolution which was slightly simpler than the present which did not carry such embargo's and complicated sanctions to be suspended. However, the UN SC will create another new resolution which will be even more strict than 1737, to prevent war at any cost. If Iran won't accept this resolution the SC will have to apply military invasion on Iran by using the forces of the U.K and U.S. In this case Tehran will have the same situation like in Baghdad today. The U.S will and has capability with good reason to attack Iran; in January 2002 Bush's State of the Union speech had labeled Iran, North Korea, and Iraq as part of an "axis of evil". Since then the U.S have been asking UN SC to apply force to stop nuclear activities in those countries, one countries as you can see from this list have been erased (Iraq). The recent Security Council Resolution 1737 is a warning that what happened to Iraq can be repeated again and again.

Ineffectiveness of the resolution1737
Another point which proves the resolutions of the Security Council to be ineffective in relation to Iran is that the content of the resolution is primarily based on the application of economic sanctions to Iran by those countries, which, in fact are against the policy of Iranian government in general. The primary idea implemented in the resolution is that in case if Iranian government refuses to disarm and to stop the development of nuclear program, the International community shall refuse to conduct any economic relations with the State. Here, the particular attention should be paid to trade relations of Iran with Western States. Thus, in case if Iran does not freeze the development of nuclear program, the abovementioned States shall stop any economic relations with the Iranian government, which, should in fact dramatically effect the development of Iran in general, and put the State into an economic depression.

On the other hand, the abovementioned resolution of the United Nation Security Council does not take under consideration that not all countries of the International Community shall support the policy proposed by the SC resolution. The particular attention shall be drawn to the potential economic partners of Iran such as Russian Federation and China. The point is that, in case if Western countries and the United States stop economic relations with Iran, the Iranian government could simply shift to the new potential economic partners and therefore would not suffer from economic sanctions proposed by the United States and other members of the UNSC.

Conclusion
In this assignment we have discussed about today's dispute which occurred in Iran on basis of the development of nuclear based activities. The overall information was given about the United Nation Security Council's Resolution 1737 which was adopted for Iran. There has been a research on this dispute about how effective and ineffective is it to resolve this dispute to maintain peace instead of starting war in Iran. As it was found out the resolution is effective from one prospective because it brings the parties to the peaceful end, but, is partially ineffective since there is high probability of military invasion to Iran, in case if Iranian government refuses to adopt the innovated resolution 1737.

Taking under consideration all abovementioned possible positive and negative effects of the resolution of the Security Council, imposed on Iran, it is seen that from one side such method of resolving the International Dispute appears to be the only peaceful mean to come up to the universal decision, without the usage of military force. On the other hand, as it was proven on the example of alterna

EF_Team2 1 / 1,709  
Oct 28, 2007   #2
Greetings!

I'm glad to help with some editing tips. Due to the length of your essay, I can't correct every error, but I'll point out a few and give you some general advice:

Knowing when and when not to use an article (a, an and the) can be very tricky if English is a second language for you. Notice that in this sentence, when you are referring to a specific age, it's "the Nuclear Age" but when you are speaking in more general terms (countries, but not specific countries) an article is not used:

Now the whole world is facing a new era called the Nuclear age, where [delete "the"] nuclear energy has become a very essential issue for [delete "the"] countries all over the world.

However the nuclear program's development has its limits - this is really a rather awkward way of saying it; better would be "Nuclear development has its limits"

The problem is considered to be remote, because they don't need to start a war, because similar sanctions were applied against Iraq in 2002 which ended in [delete "the"] failure. - I'm not sure I understand why the problem is "remote"; this is unclear.

Because Iran had failed to adopt the previous resolution which was slightly simpler than the present which did not carry such embargoes and complicated sanctions to be suspended. - this is a sentence fragment.

The point is that, in case [delete "if"] Western countries and the United States stop economic relations with Iran

You've been working hard--keep up the good work!

Thanks,

Sarah, EssayForum.com


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