hi i am new to here
this is my research paper and it is my final paper which is 40% of my grade
so please!!!!... everyone
help me to edit it!!
by the way
this is my essay about global warming
Global Warming Research: Causes, Effects, and Methods to Prevent
Astoundingly as it might sound, people are on an irretraceable path to one of the biggest threat of mankind: global warming. Global warming is the gradual increment of Earth's average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapors, methane, and Nitrous Oxide. For millennia, humans have treated the Earth as a never-ending resource, which can be utilized and squandered at will. In recent years, however, global warming has increased dramatically resulting from burning excessive fossil fuels, industrial, farming, and deforestation activities; global warming will not only effect human health and society, but also endanger our very habitats of living and put an end to our civilization, as a result, people must start to diminish CO2 and prevent the catastrophic prospects to happen.
Greenhouse effect is the cause of the warming of the earth's average temperature. Normally, when sun rays pass through the atmosphere and heat the surface, they reflect back to space. Even so, some sun rays are not reradiated and absorbed by the ocean and ground, and some others are absorbed by the CO2 and other pollutants. Because the heat is assimilated and held by the surrounding areas and the elements, the Earth created the climate we live in. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average temperature would only be about -73 degree Fahrenheit. On the other hand, with too much CO2, the temperature would increase which causes global warming.
The first appearance of CO2 on Earth is coincided with the appearance of living-things, but the content of CO2 has not changed very much during the last few centuries. Study shown, 80% of CO2 in the air comes from the respiration of humans, animals, and plants; another 20% comes from the combustion. However, 75% of CO2 is absorbed by oceans, lakes, and rivers and dissolved into water; 5% of which is absorbed by plants and transformed into organic compounds. That is why temperature of Earth has not changed much during the last few centuries.
While CO2 can be balanced by those absorptions, human factors are more formidable; dramatic increase in the content of CO2 in the air is now a major threat. First, in recent decades, human population have increased tremendously, industries have grew rapidly, CO2 produced by respiration and the combustion of coal, oil, and natural gases have exceed the amount we had in the past. Second, over deforestation and large scales of farmlands have become cities and factories, and these phenomena reduced the plants for plants' photosynthesis. Third, the degradation of surface water regions and reduction of rainfalls have reduced the absorbability of CO2.
As a consequence of these factors, the amount of CO2 has grown dramatically. We all known CO2 is the barrier which stops the reradiative sun rays from traveling back to space. As a result, the sun rays are reradiated again to the earth's surface, and the rise of CO2 keep holds excess of heat on the Earth. According to a current discovery, Flannery (2005) explains:
Many greenhouse gases are in some way or another generated by human activity. Although scarce, and weak in its capacity to capture heat, CO2 is very long lived in the atmosphere: A round 56% of all the CO2 that humans have liberated by burning fossil fuel is still aloft, which is the cause-indirectly and indirectly-of around 80% of all global warming.(p.28)
This further prove that human is the main culprit of global warming.
Although academe considers that the increment of CO2 is a main reason, there is another reason of global warming - carbon dust. Dr. James Hansen, who found this, thinks that carbon dust comes from the combustion of coal and oil, and carbon dust extremely contaminate the environment. The conglomeration of numerous carbon dusts causes the cumuli of clouds, and cumuli of clouds is the start of global warming because 40% to 90% of heat from ground comes from the reradiation of clouds. When the clouds are deeper, it is harder for heat to get through them, so the Earth is warmer and warmer. Dr. Hansen also noted that after 1970, the content of CO2 has not increase very much, but the Earth is still getting warmer. As a result, there are many causes directly and indirectly affect global warming.
Many people believe in these statements, but there are people around the world who refuse to believe that human contribution is the main cause of global warming. They think that the increase is a part of the natural climatic change of Earth. Many even argued that millennia ago, Earth's temperature had been much higher than it is now, then Earth had turned to an ice age and everything started to become normal again, so global warming is just a part of evolution. Moreover, global warming can lead the cold regions which located in higher latitude to become warmer, so agriculture can expand to those areas. Not only that, increase of CO2 is a propitiousness of plants' photosynthesis, and it raises the production of organic compounds.
Even though few support that global warming is a natural part of the Earth's climatic change, numerous phenomena and predictions show that global warming has endanger human health and life. First, global warming will cause the increment of plant diseases and insect pests. For example, in the last five years, incidence of impaludism has doubled. Now, almost 500 millions people get impaludism per year and 2 millions of them die. Second, global warming will cause the atmosphere circumfluence modulation. Rainfalls from regions in the middle latitude will reduce and become aridity. In the late 1960s, the region next to Sahara desert had six year aridity. Because of the shortage on food and water, 1.5 million people died. In 1995, more than 500 people died in Chicago alone. This was because the heat waves at nighttime left "no relief from daytime heat stress" "(Pringle, 2001, p.6-25). Not only that, regions in low latitude will have more disasters start to happen. The environmentalist Munger (2006) says "No one is suggesting that the 1993 flood was caused by climate change from out air pollution. But we can expect more and more floods just like it if we don't cut greenhouse gases."(p.104) to claimed that flood is also an outcome of global warming.
The extremely fast rate of the thaw at the caps is also an effect of global warming, and it will affect human societies. Once the polar ice shelf begins melting, it will eventually cause sea-level to rise. Many coastal cities, islands, and low-lying regions will face the threat of water rise, even submerge. According to a recent discovery, if the temperature rise rate keeps the same as now, by 2050, many famous cities such as New York, Shanghai, Tokyo and Sydney will submerged under the water. "Sea-level rise threatens low-lying coastal ecosystem globally. In Florida, U.S.A., salinity stress due to increased tidal flooding contributes to the dramatic and well documented decline of species-rich coastal forest areas along the Gulf of Mexico."(Desantis, 2007, p.1) shows the phenomenon of sea-level rise is happening now. Moreover, scientists point out, in the recently science magazine, they found a new plant virus "TOMV", which is located in the ice shelf. Scientists believe, once the ice shelf become to melt, the ancient virus will cause many different kinds of diseases that human cannot resist.
Due to these world-shaking effects, people must start to use all kinds of methods to restrain the increment of CO2 and prevent global warming. The first method to prevent is to stop the usage of CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) altogether, which is the main element produced by burning fuel that cause CO2 to increase. Second, the society needs to protect current forests and start more afforestation projects. If people stop deforest now, until 2050, the content of CO2 will decrease by 5%. Third, human needs to improve transportation that burn less fuel. Hybrid cars have been out on the market for a couple of years now. They use a small gasoline engine and high powered electric motor to drive the car. These vehicles get exceptional gas mileage and pollute considerably less than that of the more conventional automobile. Forth, place restrictions on car's drainage. As we known, cars produce huge amount of CO2 and other pollutants into air, which directly affect global warming. If there are restrictions, the CO2 will certainly decrease. Manufactures also play a big role in global warming. If governments impose a tax on the usage of petrochemical fuel, many factories will be alert and stop the pointless wasting. Also, the tax can be used for forest protection and inventing new energy sources. Finally, the government needs to encourage people to use casinghead gases and solar energy, which reduce pollution and CO2 at the same time. If all methods are being used effectively into the real world, the content of Co2 will be definitely decrease and global warming will surely slower by a considerable time frame.
Why is global warming being taught in school? Is that the government's control over you? The President Clinton states "Climate Change issues is one of the principle challenges that we face. A challenge that should we fail to meet it, could imperil the lives of our children, and if not our children, our grandchildren in this planet."(Mills, 1994, p.1) shows the government wants to educate the next generations about global warming, and teach them the importance of preventing global warming.
The overdoing of human population, industrialization and deforestation are all the main factors of enormous increment of the CO2 and carbon dust, and these reasons directly and indirectly cause global warming. We are the cause of global warming, so for the sake of avoiding these dire effects on human health, live and society, we, as each individual, must start a plan to prevent by doing little things such as plant trees and take buses instead of driving cars. These may not seem like a lot, but everyone's participation them will definitely make a difference. Therefore, let us take every chance to lighten the imprint of our footprint on the Earth, and perhaps even reverse the damage which has already been done.