In any field of endeavor, it is impossible to make a significant contribution without first being strongly influenced by past achievements within that field.
To take up any field, inspiration is must. Inspiration is the coercion required to hold on to a field and make significant contributions in it. This inspiration can be attained by knowing the basics and past achievements in that particular field. Therefore, it is true that to make a contribution in a field, some influence from past achievements is necessary. However, it is NOT impossible to make these contributions without this influence. Hence, the assertion is only partially agreeable.
When we look back in time, in most of the cases the past discoveries and inventions are the ones that had driven many people to work further and contribute more in many fields. For example, the invention of more sophisticated automobiles we have today which were developed after the invention of a wheel. The invention of computers inspired many engineers to work further. This led to the development of advanced computer we use today, from the computers in the past, which occupied almost an entire room. We can have many more examples like these.
In addition to this sometimes the discrepancies in the past achievements instill curiosity among people leading to the development of remarkable theories. As an example to this we have the most popular Einstein's theory of relativity which was formulated due to the discrepancies in the classical theory of physics. And now Einstein's theory inspired many scientists like Stephan hawking who made significant contribution in theories like the Big bang theory.
Therefore, most of the contributions that are being made now and that had been made in the past are due to the influence from preceding achievements. Being influenced by past events doesn't mean that the current achievements lack inventiveness. It is not like the past achievements are merely being replicated. They just provide us with the basic tools with which we can proceed and make more innovative contributions in a field.
However, there are a few exceptional people who have tremendous potential to make the beginning without any influence from the past. These are called "pioneers". Although, happening of such events is very rare there are people like Socrates, who was the first person to indicate that the earth is round. Then we have Sir Issac Newton who discovered gravity from the observation of an apple falling from a tree and many more. After all to have past achievements there must be a beginning somewhere.
In the light of the above discussion, to conclude, I would like to point out that even though past achievements guide us and provide the necessary inspiration for any further contributions most of the time, it is still possible to make a start without any influence from past. Therefore, I concede only to some extent with the assertion that past achievements are must to make a significant contribution in any field of endeavor.
To take up any field, inspiration is a must.
For example, the invention of more sophisticated automobiles we have today
which were developed after the invention of a wheel.
to this sometimes the discrepancies in the past achievements instill curiosity among people leadingand pave the way to the development of remarkable theories
As an example
to this we have the most popular Einstein's theory of relativity which was formulated due to the discrepancies in the classical theory of physics.
People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by society as a whole.
The attitude and behavior of people is perhaps one of the most abtruse and abstract mystery that people have been trying to figure out for about a century now beginning with the pioneering work of sigmund freud (father of psycology). It is so subjective and different for different people. The generalization as to whether these attitudes are determined by immediate situation or shaped up by the society is a very tedious task and requires quite a deliberation.
Right from birth every human being tries to learn different things from his surroundings. The first teachers being the parents then school and then society, every thing influences and shapes the attitudes. This is the reason why the people brought up in different societies have many disparities. For example, a person from Asia has different behavior than a person in Africa or America. The culture, traditions, eduction, brought up and so on are the aspects of society having a definite influence on people's attitudes
However, the immediate situations are more predominant than the inherited characteristics. This is because, human attitude is not constant. It is ever-evolving and dynamic in nature. Therefore depending on the situations around the attitude changes. Every living creature tries to adapt to ever changing environment. But this change is different in different people and this difference is attrbuted to their inherent characteristics. For instance, a person whose general attitude is calm and comfortable all the time gets nervous and becomes edgy when he has to take an exam and is overcome with fear when he sees a snake. But the exteent to which his attitude changes is different in different. Now, if ou consider a person with the same attitude as before mentioned person that is he is calm most of the tome may not get that frustrated and edgy during exams and may not be that afraid of snakes. We can see people on animal planet who are passionate of snakes.
This shows that people's behavior changes with situations but the extent to which this change occurs is again a variable. This variable is again dependent on the traits acquired by the person right from the stages of infancy. We can give sevaral examples to illustrate this.
In the light of the above discussions, I would like to indicate that although people's behavior depends on the immediate situation but that doesn't mean that it is indepoendent of the characteristics acquired from the society. It is the integration of both these attributes which ultimately determines a person's behavior and attitude.
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TOPIC: When exercising, some people prefer to exercise indoors at a gym or sports center, and others prefer to exercise outdoors. Compare these two choices. Which do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details.
I am preparing for toefl. please check my essay.
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Both exercising in gym or/and working out outdoors has its advantages and disadvantages. However, in my opinion exercising outdoors is a better option. Although, there is good privacy when we work out in gyms and many sophisticated equipment which may provide us with necessary means for efficient work out, I would still prefer exercising outdoors. There are several benefits of working out outside.
Firstly, there is abundance of fresh air . The basic purpose of any work out is to remain fit and healthy. By working out outside, with the fresh air our health is improved not only physically but also mentally. Exercising with nature relaxes me and reduces a lot of stress. While when I work out in gyms I feel closed up and constrained. Also, exercising outside is enjoyable. We can have fun, play sports and enjoy with our family and friends as we work out. I personally feel working out in gym is very draining and rigorous.
Secondly, not everybody will be in a position to pay for gyms. Gyms are pretty expensive and there are myriads of restrictions in terms of formalities associated with gyms. for example, gym might not be open if I wanted to work out very early say at 3 am. While I can fit my work out schedule as per my convenience if i am exercising by myself outside.
However, there are certain disadvantages of working outdoors too like, there will not be a discipline to work out. For example, if I were a member of a gym then I would regularly attend it, because i paid for it. If I am working out on my own I may get indolent and skip exercise once in a while. Therefore, discipline-wise gyms are better.
In conclusion, although there is no discipline factor when exercising outdoors, it depends entirely on the person's seriousness towards working out. Therefore, for me exercising outdoors is far better than gyms.