In recent years, gender inequality has become an alarming issue all around the world. Women's rights are not highly appreciated and protected by the community when the world is falling into economic recession. It is more crucial that they have to work hard to feed their selves as well as their family members without leisure time. Thus, this review will examine two articles written by Senguino (2009) and UNAIDS (2012) to have a close look to causes and measures of gender inequality during the global economic crisis before a reasonable conclusion is presented.
The Global Economic Crisis, Its Gender Implications, and Policy Responses.
According to professor Senguino (2009), gendered employment had huge influences on not only developed economies but also developing economies. To be more specific, the differences of male and female in relation to nature, externality and personality lead to a disproportionate allocation of employment among many regions in the world. Regarding the wealthy countries, mostly men meet job requirements in the field of construction and durable goods manufacturing industries. In fact, Senguino insisted that these jobs are too heavy for women to undertake and perform perfectly. Therefore, female workers are often employed in intellectual and light jobs such as education, health and social services. As a result, women's unemployment rate increased twofold more than that of men in 2008. Similarly, in developing countries, although women have an orientation to follow export-manufacturing industries and tourism, the number of unemployed women in these fields is still much greater than that of man. Accordingly, they mainly participate in subsistence agriculture with farm works in informal areas, which have low income. In addition to this, job requirements in the global economic crisis are able to result in the inequality gender. The reality shows that men are recognized as legitimate jobholders when jobs become rare and uncommon Moreover, Senguino mentioned gendered welfare effects to make this issue clearer in the global economic recession. This article points out that male employees receive higher income, power and wealth as well as offer advantages from unemployment insurance whereas women suffer many drawbacks such as temporary jobs with lower wages and less community assistance. To tackle this problem efficiently and punctually, Senguino offered three practical solutions. First, national budget should be invested in social infrastructure to create more job opportunities, in areas such as public health, education, childcare, and other social services. Second, not only vocational classes but also training programs for women workers need extending and developing to improve the gender occupational discrimination. Finally, the third policy is that unemployment insurance should be reconsidered to protect female employees' rights when their role is underestimated in the workplace.
Impact of the global economic crisis on women, girls and gender equality.
In accordance with the Senguino's inference about the link between the gender inequality and the global economic crisis, UNAIDS (2012) asserted that macroeconomic shocks bring the adverse impact on women's rights. To be more specific, according to the statistics conducted in 2008, women received lower salary than men did with a huge discrepancy (22%). Additionally, enterprises can easily fire female employees when they make mistakes and lack working experiences. This survey revealed a fact that women have to confront inequality in education especially the low number of schoolgirls enrolled in primary school. As a consequence, the quantity of low- skilled women workers increase dramatically and influence negatively on the global economic. This article took some African countries as typical examples to highlight that high child morality and low female schooling rates play key roles to cause economic stagnation in these areas. Another reason identified by UNAIDS is that trade patterns alter quickly and make women labor hardly adapt with new environment. Accordingly, more young women have to turn to informal and illegal jobs or they are forced to work abroad because of the scarcity of domestic employment. More seriously, the living cost soar annually (11%) and this can requires women to earn much money for family expenditure if men are no longer breadwinners. Consequently, UNAIDS supposed that they are not able to spend more time taking care of their health, participating other activities involved their benefits in the modern society on account of financial burdens. The stress of combating daily obstacles and family breakdown may trigger mental health problems in some circumstances.
From what is examined in two articles, it can be concluded that economic crisis is the main culprit leading to gender inequality at the global, national and individual perspectives. Although Senguino (2009) claimed that women have to encounter the growth of unemployment rate and the imbalance of income and social status, what the author missed is that current data and accurate figures related to this issue are not mentioned. Thus, readers suppose that this journal can be less objective and evident than the others. Even more, Senguino only concentrate on the negative impacts of economic recession on women in workplace and fail to extend the research's scope in other areas such as society, family background, etc. In terms of the second article, UNAIDS helps the readers have a good evaluation based on the specific statistics in the period of economic crisis. Nonetheless, this organization lacked the comparison between the developed and developing countries and acute policies to deal with this difficulty in short term. Admittedly, this journal is too detailed to cover all enormous aspects of this matter. In order to make these articles clearer, the authors should research this problem in deeper levels and then analyze them through the numbers collected from the recent surveys in the world.