Prompt was to explain New Freedom and Nationalism, explain the differences between them, and how these two movements were the basis of modern liberalism and conservatism.
New Freedom and Nationalism
The progressive movement aimed to mend the various ill workings of the United States society and economy through reforms. The progressive movement goals were to address government corruption, social problems, and directly involving the American citizens in political decision-making. Progressivism rejected Social Darwinism, adopted by many wealthy figures, and stated that men were capable of improving upon society. The New Freedom and Nationalism philosophy, which were respectably held by President Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt, paved the way for modern liberalism and conservation.
President Woodrow Wilson spearheaded the New Freedom policy, which promoted antitrust laws, bank reforms, and tax revision. This stood in opposition to President Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism on the issue of antitrust. "If America is not to have free enterprise, she can have freedom of no sort whatever," stated by Wilson during the Denver campaign speech. He declared that New Freedom stood for economic and political liberty from monopolies whereas Roosevelt's New Nationalism stood for human welfare, the protection of labor workers against monopolies. Although Roosevelt and he agreed that the American government was being abused its power, their ideals split on how to deal with the power corruption. When elected to office, Wilson adopted more of Roosevelt's New Nationalism such as the Federal Reserve System. The New Freedom was the basis for modern conservatism, which instead of radical changes, seek to observe and maintain the status quo.
"The object of government is the welfare of the people. The material progress and prosperity of a nation are desirable chiefly so far as they lead to the moral and material welfare of all good citizens," spoken by Theodore Roosevelt during the 1912 election. Roosevelt was influenced by The Promise of American Life, a book by Herbert Croly. Roosevelt's policy was a mixture of both liberal and conservative ideals. Roosevelt believed only a powerful government could regular the economy and ensures social justice. He also believed that the government should protect the labor workers from exploitation. He also supported minimum wage and child labor laws. Roosevelt wanted separate agencies dedicated to regulate businesses. New Nationalism served as a basis for liberalism.
Liberalism maintained the government can be strong but with boundaries. Modern liberalism aimed for civil liberties and more check and balances of the system. Liberals support a wide range of economic roles for the states. Conservatism, in contrast, stood for a small government and free market beliefs. Conservatism tended to observe and affect changes in incremental amounts as opposed to liberalism, which favored radical changes in society. Wilson and Roosevelt, the leaders of the New Freedom and Nationalism movement, had a mixture of liberal and conservative belief in their philosophy.
Even though their policy clashed, Roosevelt and Wilson were the same in wanting a better society. Their policies dealt with the corruption and economic problems in differing ways. The New Freedom and Nationalism served as a basis for the modern liberalism and conservatism.