Hi Gloria!I'm back!Hope you're still 'operational'.I've been given 3 more assignments!!!What a sem for me.Ok.One of it is a psychology research paper which I must talk about substance abuse.Here it is.Psychology Paper - Introduction
Since the beginning of human existence on the surface of the world, people's found ways to alter their bodies and consciousness by taking substances such as drugs and alcohol. These substances were supposed to be used in good ways especially in the field of medicine. As time passes by where everything is getting advanced every day, people start to take these substances for granted. Instead for the uses of medication, they used these substances for the sake of entertainment which not only causes harm to themselves but as well as the people around them. The excessive uses of these substances are the main root of the term substance abuse. Substance abuse occurs in all socioeconomic groups which include highly educated and professional people as well as those who are uneducated and unemployed. Soon after that, it has been proven that substance abuse not only occurred in adult stage, but as well as adolescents and young children.
Substance abuse is also referred as harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances which is alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substances can lead to dependence syndrome, a cluster of behavioral, cognitive and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use such as marijuana, heroin and alcohol drink. Drug dependence is a compelling need to continue taking a mind-altering drug to induce pleasure or to relieve anxiety and tension and avoid discomfort. Drug dependence is caused by a combination of biologic and psychological factors. Drugs that cause dependence may produce euphoria, feelings of increased mental and physical ability, and altered sense perceptions. Drug dependence can be very powerful and difficult to overcome. The body adapts to the continuous use of a drug that produces dependence, leading to tolerance and to withdrawal symptoms when use stops. Tolerance is the need to use progressively larger amounts of a drug to reproduce the effects originally achieved with the starting amount.
Nowadays, substance abusers can be found almost anywhere. Drugs abusers that abuses drugs such as ecstasy or heroin can be found in pub, disco places or even on the alley. The most common place for substance abusers is pub and disco where they abuse drugs and alcohols. Another type of substance that people abuse is the solvent abuse which involves inhaling the fumes from domestic and industrial products creating a strong intoxication. Solvent are fast drying glues and adhesives, assorted paint and petroleum products, lighter fluid, dry-cleaning fluids, assorted aerosol sprays, and surgical spirit. It is also known as 'glue sniffing' which is abused vastly by young children from age as young as 10-16. The most common method of inhaling solvents is by inhaling them from a plastic bag which is placed over the face. When inhaled, a feeling of strong intoxication takes place almost immediately with users experiencing hallucination. Due to the effects are short lived, it results in frequent use of solvent.
Another type of substance abuse is the alcohol abuse. Alcohol is a drug, and alcohol abuse is every bit as real as drug abuse. Alcohol addiction has serious long term health and legal consequences, and withdrawal can be deadly. Social drinking is common and popular is many cultures all over the world. In several cultures, for example, a glass of wine or beer with a meal is common practice. Celebrations are often punctuated with a glass of champagne or other celebratory cocktail. And in many jobs, going out for drinks after work or entertaining clients with alcohol is the norm. The difference between social drinking and alcohol abuse is when alcohol becomes your focus. One's might only want to attend social events that involve alcohol, or can't enjoy themselves without alcohol. Getting to the bar or making a drink after coming home from work becomes more important than connecting with friends or family. Studies showed that people usually drinks alcohol just to avoid painful feelings or troubled relationship and it is true that drinking alcohol can help but it will also resort to dangerous behavior such as dangerous driving while drunk and increased in driving behavior.
Tons of research and observation by the psychologists have proved that the reasons that substance abuse is occurring has its causes in all kind of perspective including parenting problems, socially and economically. Adolescents that are trapped in substance abuse are mostly due to parenting problems and social problems. For example, a chaotic home environment or ineffective parenting will caused children to mix with friends that will cause negative influence on them such as smoking or sniffing glue. On the other hand, adults that are trapped in substance abuse are most probably caused by economic problem that encourage them to take drugs to relieve their stress or to escape reality so to say. When adults were facing problem such as financial problem, they tend to be under great stress. Unable to solve the problem, they will take drugs especially at the disco taking ecstasy or spending most of their time at the bar drunken themselves up just for the sake of escaping reality. This is few of the most popular cases or causes an individual to takes drug and alcohol. As for drug, most of it is caused by commonly results from a combination of low self-esteem, peer pressure, inadequate coping skills, and curiosity. There is also evidence of familial patterns of addiction.Definition
The most common way to define substance abuse is excessive use of a substance, especially alcohol or a drug however there is no universally accepted definition of substance abuse. A definition of substance abuse that is frequently cited is that in DSM-IV, the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) issued by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-IV definition is a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period which is then divided into 2 potential ways to assume how an individual take drugs or alcohols should soon be defined whether it is substance abuse. The first one is recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home such as repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use; substance-related absences, suspensions or expulsions from school; neglect of children or household. Next is continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance, for example, arguments with spouse about consequences of intoxication and physical fights.
It's still in the process.I still need to do causes and effects and treatments which is supposed to be my member works but I think I can do it on my own.Anyway please help me see whether I'm doing it right so far.I'm kinda stuck for the definition.Hope you can help me.Thank you.