my first synthesizing essay:Is the use of animals as the object of sport and entertainment ethically justifiable?
Human relationship with animals in this world has several obstacles in last decades. If we draw back in the past, our ancestors have great chance to take benefits from the animals, which their relationship was imagined in some mystic creatures such as, Chiron was a centaur and Little Mermaid was a half women half fish. Both of them was symbolized the good relationship between human and animal from human ancestor. But in last decades, appearing some pro animal rights movements which their main purposes are defending animal rights and put the animal position equal with the Human in the world. They have brought ethical issues to against the animal existences in Zoos, Circuses and sports. This has become a matter of great interest. As a result of the Pro-Animal Rights Movements, public opinion has separate in two perceptions, pro and against the movements. Yet, there is strong argument in favour of highlighting the justification of zoo & circus animals on the right side of ethical, which Using animals as object in performance entertainment and sport is morally reasonable as long as the animal has good treatment and does not suffer. The basic existence of animals in the world is a resource benefit for human. As an abject of Sports, entertainments and educations, this is acceptable and reasonable in religion and ethically aspect. Answering question of animals ethically justifiable, in this essay, that will cover in Religion View, Animal right & welfare, Economic, recreational and educational value, Entertainment values of animal in sport and how people to treat the animals.
Ethically conscious in human society has simple definition, retrieved May 27th, 2012, from the BBC states that ethics is a moral principles system in people society, which this has basic influences in human decisions and behaviors. And ethics also concern in social moral philosophy. If the main idea of ethic is combined with how the people to treat the animals, Animal Ethics becomes a complicated subject because this regarding moral methods to take care of animals and have close rational arguments about right and wrong also the deep love of human feelings for animal. Justification of animal ethic should consider religion values and/or the deepest human conscience rather than the human ideas, because human ideas usually have several interests behind their point of view. This view contrast with the animal rights movement that mention in Kiley-Worthington (1990) description, which they use empiric dimensions to justify animal welfare and decide the ethically arguments. As a result of their measurement, appearing debate and controversy on public opinion.
The animal as a objects to attract the fans and audience in entertainments and sports have a place in the hearts of people, which this supported by Bolton (2001), he believes that in circuses show, audiences experience happy after watch live animal shows. Kiley-Worthington (1990) accepts that animal in circus and zoo give real animal live, smell, dimension and existence which those cannot provide in media. That is the reasons why the animals can attract people. Preece (1993) while has similar reason, which he explains zoos, aquaria, as recreational places to take kids which have a lot of animal attraction and educational advantages. Kiley-Worthington (1990) gives common arguments from the animal rights movements, which the wild animals in zoo and circuses are not appropriate because the animal performance in zoo or circuses make them unnatural and lost their animal dignity. The animal right movement's argument has weaknesses and not adequate to preclude the using animals as object entertainments because people still have not fell the animal lose dignity and furthermore by circuses and zoos, the animal have great added values. Reporting by the HSUS (2007) claims that animals in circus and zoo are unsafe to the public because there are some accidents in zoo did by wild animals. This reason cannot accept, because their opinion by simplifying all zoos and circuses are dangerous, while the facts it occurred because of bad zoo management in that place. ECA (The European Circus Association), in their press release mentions some statistic data from IAC (Irish Councils Shows, 2006), which a lot of Irish visited circus than other entertainment shows, while in Germany, the number circus visitors reached 6.4 million visitor in 2006-2007 and a random survey was conducted for German public found that 86% their believed animal performances is the most important part of circus.
In religion aspect, which most of people believes this aspect as a main consideration to measure their behaviors and actions wrong or right? The BBC describes, for Christianity consideration, all of inappropriate act and treat due to animals are sinful and morally wrong, while in Islam holy book, Al-Qur'an (QS6:38) states clearly that all creatures included animal are created by Allah SWT (God), human can take benefit from their existence, and all of animal must be treated with care and kindness. Both of the religions as the biggest religion in the world accept animals in sports, circuses, and zoos as long as human can give the best treatment and care about the animal. Encyclopedia of Islam, Haywan article, p.308, vol.3, p.308 explains story of Muhammad which He said 'All human act to kills sparrow or smaller creatures than sparrows with torture them will be asked by God in judgment day and allow the animals to fight each other's is absolutely forbidden and sinful'. Hence, the religion consideration is the best way to decide and justify all human acts in wrong or right way. While if Activists of the animal welfare movements as a good religion should be use their religion values to determine these problems. And make a convention in treat animals for entertainment and sports purposes.
The environment difference in zoos should be considered by zoo management, this is excellent technique to give better environment for animals. Preece (1993) suggests in every areas of animal in zoo should be designed to fit with the basic necessities of the animal by creating replicas of natural habitation as far as feasible. This suggestion answers the animal welfare movements, which the animal lives in unnatural habitat; moreover the animal will be stress and lost natural instinct to breed in unnatural conditions. Kelly-Worthington (1990) gives a fact that British circus has been successful in conserving and breeding non-domestic animals, snow leopard compare with any zoos or animal conservations in the world. This proves that circus also has great benefit in breeding endangered species despite the species live in unnatural environment.
The animal rights and welfare are the most fundamental reason why the animal movement becomes strong against animal for entertainment and sport. Singer (1975) remarks the basic principle of equality is not need the same position in treat the animal, this needs similarity consideration for animal being might be lead to different husbandry and right. The same consideration means if the animal doesn't have sense of pain and doesn't include in sentient animal, they don't have rights. What is sentient animal is and how to know if the animals are sentient being? Basically human are in the top position of the creatures' God, because human has great differences with the other non-human creatures such as logical thinking and complex communication ability. This means the only human is sentient being in the worlds no one the others. Concerning animal rights aspect, Preece (1993) argues that the animal rights philosophy is a determined obstruction to our capacity to deal with the enormity of the environmental problems which the world faces now. The BBC asserts that animals have not rights, because if the human put animal rights, this treats the animals in the same position as a human and human existence in the world will be threatened by animal. This is very obvious that animals do not have rights, but as human beings naturally have a fundamental obligation of the existence of animals in this world to keep their sustainability.
There are some fact that in circus or zoo where the animal trainer or keeper doing some cruel acts in animal handling, traveling and/or training As a result of deleterious effects on animal. Greenwood's study (as cited in Lossa, Soulsbury and Harris, 2009), claims circus lion got serious illness caused by bacteria after consuming particular foods. The others states by Lossa, Soulsbury and Harris (2009) which cuscuses failed to provide basic necessities of animal as a result of this, the animal become lack capacity in natural behaviors. However that studies cannot be consider as the reason to generalize all of zoo and circuses. Kiley-Wothington, 1990 states some suggestions which the animal should be handle in safely, train in the animal in form of occupational therapy with species-individual emotion approach. As a human, it cannot inevitable which some trainers, keepers or the circus owner have bad act due to animal. This just like bad teacher, bad parents, bad coach but this cannot become the main reason to prohibit the circus and zoo, school, and institution. Bolton (2001) believes circus can educate and entertain people also inspire them to respect and care for the other creatures where people share their lives with animals on a small planet, the earth. Conversely there are always better method in training and treating the animal as consequence, both of the animal and people get great benefits.
On the basis of the above support, ethically acceptable the use of animals for human benefit, all of this in line with the basic existence of animal on the earth in religion aspect. Overall that should be made improvement in circuses and zoos management to minimize some animal's welfare issue rather than prohibit the usage animals.