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How to write intext citations for publications by NGO's where no author is mentioned ?

Apple_eye 1 / 1  
Apr 19, 2015   #1
I am a beginner in academic writing and need some help,

I want to know how to cite ( in text)an ngo publication, for example , Marking Progress Against Child Labour is a publication by International Labour Organization ..and as in most publications author name is not mentioned.

So should I go by rules for anonymous writer ? or just mention as (ILO, 2012) ?

Secondly , i read somewhere passive voice should be avoided in an essay ? ...can you explain by example ?

Please reply soon.
lcturn87 - / 435 236  
Apr 19, 2015   #2
I'm not sure if you are using APA or MLA format. If you are using APA style, your paper would say, "According to the International Labour Organization (2012),...This is how you would start quoting since this is a well known organization. In MLA style, you would use a shortened version of the title and indicate the page number in parentheses at the end of the quote in the paper. Example of MLA: ("Marking Child Labour", 9). The reader can look at your works cited page to refer back to it. Remember the works cited page should list the entire publication name!*

When you use the passive voice it is common to use "by the" in the sentence. It also could to be used with forms of to be (is, was, were, have been).

The cat was caught by the dog.
The people were lost.

When I look at this first sentence, I feel it is okay because you know exactly what occurred. However, in the second sentence there could be more details added. For example, a writer could say: The people who were lost at sea looked forward to being rescued and reunited with their family.

There are different resources about the passive voice. However, I think that if you add enough details to your sentences then you will show that you want your reader to fully grasp what you are writing. You will avoid writing sentences where the reader questions: Who? What? Where? When? Why?How? Also, ask yourself these questions when you are writing so you can write complete sentences that give the right amount of details to the reader.

*I found this information from the site Purdue OWL for MLA & APA assistance.This site also helps you to understand the passive voice: I also tried to use my own examples.
OP Apple_eye 1 / 1  
Apr 20, 2015   #3
Thank you so much . It is really useful. Please answer some more of my questions.I will be grateful
I am following the APA style ...according to their example :
One Author (when the text as whole needs to be cited)
o Reference in text

Last name (year of publication)
o Rowling (2005) argues for the development of new curricula.

o No reference in text
(Last name of author, copyright year).

o The development of new curricula has been argued before (Rowling, 2005).
1 .So if i want to give no reference in text ....do i have to write like this " According to the International Labour Organization (2012)," the first time when i refer and after that "According to ILO,(2012)" i mean i can use the abbreviation for the subsequent reference? ...also will it be wrong to cite like "Child labour has declined during past few years (ILO,2012) " ??

2. How can i give reference to 2 or 3 studies that convey the same idea e.g : "Many studies reveal that in the industrial era, the conditions of employed children became worse (Mills, 1987) , (Jason, 1991) (Smith,1995) " OR should i write like ... "In the industrial era the conditions of the children became worse, as their working hours increased considerably (Mills, 1987) and their employees, ruthlessly, subjected them to physical abuse (Jason, 1991)." Is it correct to write 2 citations in one sentence like above ?

3. If I took the material from a blog on internet ..should i include that in-text citation ...bcz the author is mentioned but not the publishing date ..the page says to cite the material as :Steven Mintz, "Childhood and Transatlantic Slavery," in Children and Youth in History, Item #57, website (accessed April 19, 2015).

4 . In what case the citation of anonymous is applicable?
5 .How much emotion can reflected in an academic essay ?
I know the post has become extensive ...but as i said I am a beginner ...:)
hanzy48 2 / 4  
Jun 5, 2016   #4

I want to write this quote "Although fate presents the circumstances, how you react depends on your character" in the Hook of my Narrative essay. But I don't know how because it's an unknown quote.

And in the hook i want to said this quote is very consistent with the ending of my love story (what i will write about in the body).

Thank you so much for your useful answers!!!!
salam97 3 / 4  
Jun 5, 2016   #5
Hello @hanzy48

I'd like to show you rephrase the sentence in my opinion .
( Although our fate has decided but your interaction still depends on your personality )

hope this will be useful .
hanzy48 2 / 4  
Jun 5, 2016   #6
Thank you so much!! I'll try this way!! :)

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