I have a research project that need peer review by other students and answer the following questions:1. Does the introduction grab your attention? Does it lead smoothly to a thesis? If not, what could the writer do to improve it?
2. What is the thesis statement? Does it contain a strong opinion and specific focus?
3. Does each paragraph develop one main idea? Describe the main idea of each paragraph (five words or less for each). Does each of the topic sentences tie back to the thesis?
4. Does the conclusion briefly summarize in a fresh way the writer's main argument and then end on a memorable note (such as a quotation, thought, image, or call to action)? What is that memorable impression that the conclusion leaves?
5. Does the essay have a creative title that describes the purpose/point of the paper in a catchy, clear way?
6. Are there grammar and spelling errors in the essay?
Thanks for your assistance,
The Role of Developmental Psychology on Children's Personality
Psychology is such an enormous area of focus and carrying the complexity and extensiveness of the matter can be hard. There are sum of exclusive and typical branches of psychology have arisen to contract with special subtopics within the study of the behavior, brain, and mind. Child psychology also called child development, it is defined as the study of the psychological procedures of children and, precisely, and the way of how these processes differ from the ones in adults, also, it study how children develop from birth till the end of puberty Child development also focus on how these processes are different from one child to another. The topic is sometimes gathered with infancy, adulthood, and aging under the class of development psychology.
As a scientific regulation with a solid observed foundation, child study is of moderately new or. Field of study. It was introduced in 1840, by Charles Darwin, when he began to document the steps of the growth and development of one of his own children. It started by gathering the information in the same way that he had been studying an unfamiliar. Same study has been found by German psycho-physiologist William Preyer put forward the techniques for a series of others. In 1891 American educational psychologist G. Stanley Hall established the "Pedagogical Seminary", a journal dedicated to child psychology and education . During the early 20th century, the expansion of intelligence tests and the founding of child guidance clinics further defined the field of child psychology (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica).
Psychology considers one of the many branches of psychology, and it considers one of the most commonly studied specialties now a days, due to its huge importance of the children's future as adults. Child psychology does not only deal with the physical growth of the children but also with their mental, emotional, and social development. Now a days, psychology specialists distinguish that child psychology is exceptional and complex, but many differ in terms of the unique viewpoint they take when approaching development. Furthermore; childhood age plays a crucial role in the rest of human life, and there is no wonder why this subject has become such a significant one within psychology, sociology, and education. This research is going to cover the effects and the importance of the well-being development on mental health. Also, the second important topic that truly impact the child psychological development is the role of the family, relatives, and peers.
In order to understand the concept of mental well-being, it is very important to mention the physiological developmental steps for child's brain. There are several studies shows that the influence of specific brain regions on the development of self-evaluations in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Also; there are certain regions effects on different aspects such as academic, physical and prosocial, and valence the positive versus the negative behaviors. Specifically, since infancy to age of five years old, the child's brain develops very rapidly and more than any other time during human's life "At birth, the average baby's brain is about a quarter of the size of the average adult brain. Incredibly, it doubles in size in the first year. It keeps growing to about 80% of adult size by age 3 and 90% - nearly full grown - by age 5." (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). The early brain development has a long-lasting influence on a child's ability to learn, adapt and succeed in school and life. The value of a child's skills during the first few years of life whether positive or negative, it will help to shape the way of how their brain develops.
The other concept is stress. Stress can have a severe negative impact on the physiological and psychological development of children and adolescence. Since the brain is the central organ of stress and alteration because it observes what is hostile and decides a behavioral reaction that may involve aggressiveness, fleeing, caution, and anxiety for the possible danger. The brain also has the ability to determin health-damaging behaviors such as; eating, smoking, drinking excessively and sleeping poorly. The brain controls body practices across the nervous system, the neuroendocrine (Hormonal), immune, metabolic systems, which they work together as a nonlinear complex that alongside affects many body structures, like, heart, liver, kidneys and brain. The brain also responds to stress, and metabolic hormones, which can change neuronal manner and adjust behavior as well as the regulation of those body
Mental well-being development considers an important part of this research due to deep effect of the proper brain development. In child and adolescence development not only healthy physical growth is important, but also, mental well- being development is vital and important. Studies shows that it is very important to provide a mentally healthy environment for children to grow without any psychological issues. The point to discuss in depth the role of surroundings such as family that includes parents and siblings, relatives. School also has an effective role in developing the child personality. Friend and peers have a part of improving the child's psychology. As a result; Children who raised in aggressive environment whether at home or school, they more likely to develop mental and psychological issues. Thus, preventive interventions to reduce adversity and thereby help improve brain and body wellness for children must focus on the family. In addition to that, there are some school programs for pre-school children age which "Head Start" a program like that have worked best when the family environment supports the child and the child comes home to a secure and sympathetic atmosphere (McEwen, 2011). The Perry School Project is an example of this mixture and has shown a large return on investment, not only in earnings and accomplishment for the child but also for society, which will involve a minimum crime, less need for special education systems and welfare services, and larger tax income revenue. Another programs, like Nurse-Family Partnership provide community help and education for first time parents and families, also, the Harlem Children's Zone Baby College provides this type of education in a class for expectant mothers and their partners (McEwen, 2011).
According to BMC pediatrics that considers an open approach journal that is publishing peer-reviewed research papers in different parts of health care in neonates, children, adolescents. These studies approaching parents by showing them the importance of parenting behaviors to developing healthy brain, and this will lead to healthy adult. when parents behave kindly to their children. The later brain's is developed in more advanced way than the children who's their parents are aggressive to. Development of emotional intelligence is another hot topic needs to be covered through this research. According to Psychological topics journal, that published by University of Rijeka, Faculty of Humanities and social sciences, Department of Psychology. The article stated that the condition of emotional intelligence variables within the organization of numerous associates with violent conduct at various phases of person's development. For example; domestic violence the consequences of domestic violence on children, caused from observing domestic violence at home when one of the parents is insulting the other parent. This issue plays a marvelous role on the development of the children's emotional intelligence.
In addition to the emotional intelligence, it is also important to mention the effect of developing the sense of touch that starts from fetal life, when the baby start to feel his/her mother in the womb, recognizing her voice and even her smell. A great example is the animal models strengthen the idea that solid maternal care is significant for good emotional, social, and cognitive development. Certainly, good maternal care can stun some of the adverse effects of prenatal stress. It has continuing and equal transgenerational results that are epigenetic, which means, the product of observed instruction of genetic expression. These animal-model studies have now offered some evidence that epigenetic alterations seen in relative to poor maternal care.
According to Developmental cognitive Neuroscience journal that published an article that illustrate the effect of the sense of touch that develops in utero and allows parent-child relationship from first seconds of baby's life. The article explains why animals lick and groom their babies and skin-to-skin care in humans has creating outcomes on the children's stress structure. Furthermore; Skin to skin has a physiological effect in addition to psychological effect. The necessities of infants at birth is the upkeep of temperature due to infants when they are born, they lack shivering mechanism. As a result, they will not be able to produce heat, and this consequence might lead to a rapid decline in its temperature in the baby's body temperature. Presently, the regular care is to inhibit hypothermia by putting infant under a warmer if they need to when the mother and the infant are separated. It is considered one of the most important duties of a nurse is to ease a close attachment relationship between the mother and his/her infant. One more important aspect that has a great influence on late children and adolescence is the physical changes that occur on their bodies and how it affected their personality. The changes during this time, provide young people, a new body, personality, and identity. A beneficial way of passing this stage will dramatically affect persons' viewpoints on life in a positive way. Consequently, during this stage knowing what the modifications taking place are and a correct methodology will afford the successful determining adolescents who already live a hard time. When children start to detect that their bodies are changing, they may practice a new and unexperienced set of social practices. It is usually protected by their first pleasant practices of sexual stimulation, and by their peers and culture, they become involved in founding what can become intense, romantic, and sometimes sexual relationships with other people. In addition to that, these bodily changes become visible to others, children may start to notice that they are being treated differently by others, such as, more quickly growing youth may experience an increase in their acceptance, while their more slowly maturing peers may experience a ignorance in popularity. Youth may also notice that other people are suddenly paying a great deal more attention to how they look than they are accustomed.
Adolescence is an active stage in which person's physical and psychosocial that includes mental and emotional developments take place. The young person turns out to be an adult with social, sexual, physical and psychological changes. After all these changes occurred, the adolescents appear as an adult but doesn't have the ability to think and act like a real adult. Mainly; adolescents try to stimulate the physical changes and try to be independent. When this process completed with all these new changes, he/she has expectations from himself, family and the population. They start to seek social recognition, individuality, and has demand for love and respect from the family and the population. If all these factors are failed to meet the adolescent start to struggle, and these struggles have a severe consequence. Now a days, there is a big concern by the parents which can cause a real threating of children and teenagers' suicidal actions. Genetic factors have also a portion of this research, which is significant to mention that the presence of certain genes, or the genetic differences also make a impact because certain alternatives of common genes (alleles) increase susceptibility to effects of hostile early-life experiences. Nevertheless, these reactive alleles may also provide increase to better results in a development environment. People with these alleles have been called "orchid children," while those with less-reactive alleles are "dandelion children," who can do sensibly healthy in any situation
As a conclusion; psychology is a large field of study that is interested in exploring human's behaviors under different conditions. Psychology has many branches and of the most popular branches is Child's psychology. Child's psychology plays a crucial role in studying and understanding children's way of thinking, specially, during the old times, it was thought that children thinks in the same way as adults. However; the new researches show that children have a special way of thinking. Even their brain physiology is different and going through a lot of dramatic changes during different stages of childhood and adolescences. Providing a healthy environment for healthy mental development is very important, and it is the parents responsibility to take care of this task. A family and school support are also another important factor to prevent our children from any psychological issues. Another important point needs to be mentioned is adolescence education. It is very important to educate our young children with the physical, psychological changes that will occur eventually to their bodies. Education will make them more readily to this challenging stage of life, and it will increase their self-esteem and confidence. It is necessary for the parents to be friends with their kids before they become their bosses because the strong parent-children relationship is built on respect, love, and trust.Work Cited:
Babić Čikeš, Ana. "Emotional Intelligence and Aggressive Behaviour in Childhood and Adolescence ̶ An Overview of Studies." Psychological Topics
Malhotra, Savita, and Swapnajeet Sahoo. "Antecedents of depression in children and adolescents." Industrial psychiatry journal
Moffitt, Terrie E. "Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces." Development and Psychopathology
Özdemir, Aysel, Nevin Utkualp, and Aylin Palloş. "Physical and Psychosocial Effects of the Changes in Adolescence Period." International Journal of Caring Sciences
Simmons, J. G., et al. "Study protocol: families and childhood transitions study (FACTS)-a longitudinal investigation of the role of the family environment in brain development and risk for mental health disorders in community-based children." BMC pediatrics
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Child Psychology." Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.