I have entered uni as a mature age student and I must admit, I am finding essay writing very daunting! I have done so much research and have considered all the question but when it comes to actually making a start... its really not happening!!! I have a question though, here is my essay question:
This assignment is to be written in essay form. The assignment is to contain:
- A description of Gardiner's theory of Multiple Intelligences from information synthesized from several sources (University referencing to be used throughout).
- Completion of two learning style surveys (see Blackboard for learning survey sites. You may choose other surveys in consultation with your tutor. Attach completed surveys in an Appendix of the assignment).
- Analysis of each survey's results and come to a conclusion of your learning style from the results you have gathered. Do you believe that these results paint an accurate picture of your learning style? Why or why not? Did you believe the surveys were valid instruments?
- Describe the characteristics of an effective learner from information you have researched. Then describe how you perceive yourself as a learner (are you effective?) and how the findings of the learning surveys may influence your learning this semester.
My question is, is how would I answer the last three questions without using "I" or "my." I asked my lecturer today, and she advised that the question must be written in the third person.
Also should I use headings or not in an essay?
Thanks in advance :)
Essay writing can seem a little daunting at first, but you'll get the hang of it! It's a bit more daunting when your instructor gives you contradictory instructions! The instructions clearly refer to "you" as a person, so telling you not to write in first person is counter-intuitive. However, since you must do it, you might try something like this:
"The results gathered indicate a learning style of XYZ. The surveys employed, however, arrive at a conclusion which runs counter to the expected result. The validity of the surveys is thus called into question.
A self-evaluation by the researcher indicates the presence of effective learning skills, however room for improvement exists and information gleaned from the learning surveys will provide a basis for realizing optimum gains in learning this semester."
Whether or not to use headings usually depends on the type of essay. It appears to me that this type of project lends itself well to headings.
I hope this helps get you started!
Thanks for such a prompt reply! I started on the first part last night and dont really know if i have gone ok.. what do you think? i am going to start the next questions tonight and will be sure to use the examples you have given. Thanks!
Do you think I should do an introduction and conclusion for this essay, or will it be acceptable to just go straight into the questions? Thanks heaps, for your time.
Intelligence was initially perceived by the early studies of behaviourists as being a single entity which was inherited, and additionally, that the human mind began as a blank slate. (Smith, 2002). Intelligence was primarily measured by Alfred Binet's theory as the "ability to use language and do mathematics," (Chapman & Freeman, 1996) and educational systems were largely built around this. As a result, an IQ test was introduced to measure this widely accepted theory of intelligence. Howard Gardner challenged these traditional intelligence tests however, and rejected claims that intelligence resulted from any single factor and could simply be measured by a number.
Consequently, a new view of intelligence was proposed by Gardner and this can be defined as "the ability to solve problems or to create products valued within one or more cultural settings." (Vialle & Perry, 1995). Further, Gardner maintained that intelligence comprises of multiple, separate intelligences, each of which are quite different from the other. These different intelligences are specialised for building knowledge and solving problems in the different cognitive areas of which they relate to. (Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006)
The seven multiple intelligences that were introduced by Gardner can be indentified and defined as Linguistic Intelligence, Logical-Mathematical Intelligence, Spatial Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence and Intrapersonal Intelligence. An eighth intelligence called Naturalist Intelligence was eventually added to the growing list of multiple intelligences.
I think you're off to a great start! It's very well-written. To answer your question about using an introduction and conclusion, I think that since your instructor specified you should write it "in essay form" that you should probably include those elements.
Here's an editing suggestion:
Further, Gardner maintained that intelligence is comprised of multiple, separate intelligences,
Keep up the good work!
Thank you Sarah for your help, should i write the introduction after i have written the main body or start it before hand so i know where i am going?
also how do you think i could link the end of the writing above, to the second question?
Speaking for myself, I generally prefer to write the introduction first, so that I know the direction my paper is going; however, if you are very clear on that, and would rather wait, there's no rule against that. Do what works best for you.
As far as linking the two, it depends how they relate to one another. How do the surveys tie into Gardiner's theory of Multiple Intelligences? Think about that and see if you see an opening. Failing that, go ahead and write the next part, and I'll try to help you with a segue.
I have written some more, but have now found myself completely stuck. I am not sure if this is because of the way I have set out the essay or not but something is not working!
What do you think so far? Do you think it all runs smoothly, also as I havent really answered the last question yet, I am not sure whether to answer the question for each survey in the 2 different paragrahs or do you think i should do a whole new paragraph about the characteristics of an effective learner? What do you think i should use in my introduction and conclusion??? Thanks so much for you help, its great to be able to get some feedback :)
Well, first off, I think it's coming along very well! I do think you should make a whole new paragraph for the characteristics of an effective learner. If it is a separate section in the instructions, I'd make it separate in the essay by starting a new paragraph.
I note that you used first person when writing about your responses to the surveys. Did you receive clarification from your instructor that it was all right to do so?
As far as the smoothness of the essay, I think you have done about as well as you can, considering the questions on which it is based. There is bound to be a bit of a jump from writing about the multiples intelligences to giving the results of the surveys.
One sentence that could use a little reworking: "I have always been a learner in which likes learning facts and details and apply established methods to solve problems and decipher new information." I'd rewrite it to say "I have always been a learner who enjoys learning facts and details, and applying established methods to solve problems and decipher new information."
Keep up the good work!
I have written the whole body now and started the introduction.. what do you think? I think the introduction is way too short but dont know what else to put in there.. and as far as the conculsion goes.. well I am stuck there too!! Hopefully you will be able to give me a few pointers! If there is anything that doesnt make sense please let me know so I can have a look at it, it is due on Tues :)
Thanks for all your help! Oh and yes, I did get permission to use both the first and third person in this essay because the lecturer agreed that it wouldnt run as smoothly otherwise :)
I think it is turning out very well! One thing I want to caution you to look for is not to mix up singular and plural. For example:
"To be an effective learner one has to be aware of their cognitive strengths and weaknesses and aware of the way in which they learn. " One person cannot be "they"; it is best to find another way to put it, such as "To be effective learners, people must be aware..." Or, in the alternative, "To be an effective learner, one has to be aware of one's cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and the way in which learning occurs."
A grammar correction: The results of the multiple intelligences survey has helped to identify the weaker areas of my intelligence which I have been overlooking,
Your introduction is a little short, I suppose, but the main thing is that a paragraph should normally be at least three sentences. You could easily make yours into three:
Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences provides that the awareness of one's own learning processes is an essential part of becoming an effective learner. This theory will be examined through the analysis of two separate surveys, one of which is a cognitive style survey and the second a learning style survey. In addition, Gardner's theory will also be examined to observe how the integration of his theory supports effective learning strategies.
I think your ending is actually not bad as is, but certainly a summarizing paragraph would not be a bad idea. You would just touch on the main points made in your essay.
I hope this helps!
Woohooo!! I have finally finished it.. well I think so anyway he he. What do you think, is there anything that you think I should look at before handing it in on Tues afternoon. Also, just one more question if I can, how do you attach an appendix throughout the essay. Like would I also refer to the essay's as appendix A or B or put them next to the name of the surveys like you would when referencing. Not too sure how this part works.
Thanks heaps for your help too, you have been a gem :)
This essay will briefly explore the early notion of intelligence and the reasons which influenced Howard Gardner's rejection of this concept and thus, the introduction of his own theory of Multiple Intelligences. Through the analysis of two separate surveys, the first of which is based on Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences and the second being a learning style survey, it will be determined that one of the most essential, key elements to becoming an effective learner is the awareness of one's own learning processes. In addition, it will be revealed how the integration of these results will enable me to be more aware of my own learning processes and implement strategies that will assist me to become a more proficient and effective learner.
Intelligence was initially perceived by the early studies of behaviourists as being a single entity which was inherited, and additionally, that the human mind began as a blank slate (Smith, 2002). Intelligence was primarily measured by Alfred Binet's theory as the "ability to use language and do mathematics," (Chapman & Freeman, 1996) and educational systems were largely built around this. As a result, an IQ test was introduced to measure this widely accepted theory of intelligence. Howard Gardner challenged these traditional intelligence tests however, and rejected claims that intelligence resulted from any single factor and could simply be measured by a number. Consequently, a new view of intelligence was proposed by Gardner and this can be defined as "the ability to solve problems or to create products valued within one or more cultural settings." (Vialle & Perry, 1995) Further, Gardner maintained that intelligence comprised of multiple, separate intelligences, each of which are quite different from the other. These different intelligences are specialised for building knowledge and solving problems in the different cognitive areas of which they relate to (Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006). The seven multiple intelligences that were introduced by Gardner can be indentified and defined as Linguistic Intelligence, Logical-Mathematical Intelligence, Spatial Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence and Intrapersonal Intelligence. Howard Gardner argued that every individual is born with all these seven intelligences which develop through different cultural experiences and influences and through life's learning processes. Although the areas of intelligence are quite distinct and separate from each other, the intelligences are seldom operated separately. Rather, the intelligences are used simultaneously and often work together as a person develops skills and solves problems (Brualdi, 1996). It can also be shown that every individual has strengths and weaknesses, however intelligences can be taught are continually changing throughout life.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is not another theory of learning styles, it is "the capacity of the brain to deal with certain types of information, represented by the seven discrete intelligences delineated by Gardner" (Vialle & Perry, 1995). Krause et al (2006) refers to Gardner's theory as a cognitive style theory which is the "characteristic ways of thinking and perceiving that individuals use to process and remember information" (pg?). The results of the Multiple Intelligences survey (Appendix A) suggest that one of my strongest areas of intelligence is the Logical-Mathematical Intelligence which is "most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking" (Smith, 2002). It involves the ability to recognise and work with abstract patterns and problem solving in a structured and linear way (Vialle & Perry, 1995). This survey's results however, arrive at a conclusion which runs counter to the expected result and thus, the validity of this survey is called into question. Despite possessing a passion for mathematics and numbers, this has never proven to be one of my strongest areas of intelligence academically. One of the biggest limitations of Jordan's survey is that all the questions ask the reader how they feel about different examples of each particular area of intelligence; however there are no questions which calculate how well the reader actually performs in each area. There is a wide contrast between enjoying an area or subject and it actually being an area or subject "in which you will learn and demonstrate understanding most easily" (Herrell & Jordan, 2004). I expected that the results of the survey would have indicated that my strongest area of intelligence would have been Linguistic Intelligence as this has always proven to be the area of which I excel at academically. A number of the questions in the multiple intelligences survey however, fail to accurately construe Howard Garner's original definition of Linguistic Intelligence as being the ability to use language to express information and feelings effectively and using language as a way to remember information. Two of the questions in the survey under the Linguistic Intelligence section (see appendix A) associate Linguistic Intelligence to the partiality of playing word and board games. Because someone does or doesn't feel 'happy' when playing word or board games does not mean they do not use language to express information and feelings effectively and should therefore not be used as questions that measure Linguistic Intelligence.
Learning styles like Felder's survey can be defined as the way in which "students interact with and respond to information in learning contexts" (Krause et al., 2006). It is the preferred method of learning new information. Upon completion of Felder's learning style survey (Appendix B) the results have indicated that I have a very strong preference for sequential and sensing learning. The results of Felder's learning style survey support and enhance my previous beliefs of what my learning style was. I have always been a learner who likes learning facts and details and like to apply established methods to solve problems and decipher new information. As a typical sequential learner, I tend to learn information in "linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one." (Felder & Soloman.) One of the weaknesses I am challenged with as a result of being a sensing learner is the difficulty in being able to develop analytical and innovative skills, this is because I tend to focus on facts and details and prefer the rote method of learning. Despite is U.S origin, I found this survey to be valid and the questions relevant to my background. The questions were based on prior knowledge and experiences and considered performance in area's rather than how you feel about an area as assessed in the Multiple Intelligences survey.
To be an effective learner one has to be aware of their cognitive strengths and weaknesses and aware of the way in which they learn. Constant reflection and monitoring of learning performance and the flexibility to make changes to learning strategies are all characteristics of an effective learner. Metacognition not only involves the monitoring of one's learning but also includes the ability to gain self control over their personal thinking processes. In gaining self control over one's learning practises, it becomes easier to identify factors, such as weaknesses and habits, which may be resulting in poor learning performance (Sharples, 1989). Monash University of Australia also concludes that an effective learner not only memorises new information, but actively connects new information to prior knowledge. This enables the learner to give more meaning and understanding to new information ("Learning at University - Student Equity Unit," 2003). After a review of the characteristics of an effective learner as outlined above, it can be concluded that I am not as much of an effective learner as previously believed. The results of the multiple intelligences survey has helped to identify the weaker areas of my intelligence of which I have been overlooking, and thus will enable me to become more aware of the need to address these weaknesses and to change these into strengths. Consequently, for the duration of this semester, I have developed learning plans and strategies that will endeavour to help learn new information through encompassing all of the seven areas of intelligences as defined by Gardner. The result of Felder's learning style survey has identified that added flexibility in the way I respond to information can enable me to become a more effective learner. I need to concentrate on enhancing my critical thinking skills and the ability to comprehend how information connects to my prior knowledge and experiences. The constant reflection and monitoring of my newly developed learning strategies will enable me to identify the effectiveness of my learning and ensure I am getting the most out of my learning opportunities this semester.
Through the research of Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory and the analysis of the results of the two surveys my initial perception of what constituted an effective learner has now changed. Although the results of the Multiple Intelligences survey were questionable, Howard Gardner's premise that intelligence is made up of a number of separate intelligences that are specialised for the specific cognitive areas in which they relate to, will be something that I will continue use through my journey as a learner and throughout my teaching career. The initial belief that intelligence should be measured by mathematical and linguistic ability has been replaced with the belief that every individual has intellectual strengths and weaknesses and learns in different ways. The results of the surveys have highlighted the need to devise learning strategies that will enhance the effectiveness of my learning processes and has shown that when I become a teacher, one of the most invaluable skills that I can provide to my students is supporting them to become aware of their own metacognition.
I think it has turned out very well! I'm not sure that I understood your question about appendixes. Are you talking about making the surveys appendixes? Appendixes are often used to present unpublished tests, surveys or other materials.
The form of an Appendix is as follows:
1. Start each Appendix on a separate page.
2. Heading: the word Appendix is centered on the first (double-spaced) line below the header. If there is more than one appendix, use letter names: Appendix A, B, C, etc.
3. Indent the first line by 5 to 7 spaces.
4. Use the label of the Appendix when citing it in the text: (Appendix B) (as you already have done).
You can see an example of an APA-formatted Appendix here: vanguard.edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/appendix.pdf
Best of luck in your studies!
I need help writing this paper. It can be short and to the point. I need it for tomorrow before noon.
One criticism of Harold Gardner's Multiple Intellegence theory is that he classifies talents as a type of intelligence. Critics might say that a talented dancer or chess player is not necessarily smart. How would you reply to this criticism? What other criticism of Gardner's theory might you support?
If you want to give it a philosophical view, you could talk about what "talent" and "intelligence" are, stating that they may have different meanings to different people