dear all, please give me advice for my master research plan...
Nowadays, Portland cement is the main material to cement for living house construction. Whereas, Portland cement has main weakness that relate to strength and cost efficiency as material construction for living house.
Portland cement was proven has higher strength far above the standard cement for housing (xx: 20xx). Cement companies need high energy and cost to produce high quality cement. This causes the price of cement is getting expensive-about $6 per sack and climbs up to 24% in the last two years (xx: 2xx). Ironically, the strength of Portland cement will cause the bricks shrink that force restraint, if the strength is higher than brick. This will increase the number of cracks on the wall (xxx: 2xx) so that the house will not able to withstand seismic waves. This shows that Portland cement is not save for housing in the earthquake prone areas.
In the environment aspect, producing cement processes is dangerous for air. This is because Cement production is one of emitters in the Earth. According to International Exx's data, the amount of Carbon dioxide (CO2) that had been produced by producing cement in 19xx was 2x,x billion ton or around x% from all CO2 in this earth. This number will rise equally with the growth of industrial cement product (xx,20xx).
All negative effects above, never reduce using of cement in housing construction. This is proven by the demand of cement climbs 2.5% per year (xxx: 20xx). This is caused people have no enough another alternative in cement that more appropriate in hosing that Portland cement.
This needs another cement that is not only appropriate with construction standard but also environmentally friendly to overcome these problems. One of the solutions is using powder of wasting brick. Waste brick from house reconstruction that is still has limited utilization can be used in cement mix. Brick had been proved contains silica and alumina (xxx: 20xx). Silica and Alumina are the elements forming of pozzolan.