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Rough draft - Abortion , by: Mohammed Alhajri

Submitted to: Paul Franckowiak
Submitted by: Mohammed Alhajri
Date: 25 July 2016

Topic: Abortion (Rough draft)


Ending pregnancy with medical sources is known as the abortion. Abortion is a controversial concept that is still looking for some absolute agreement. It can bring physical and psychological problem for women. There are different type of abortion on medical basis (Craig)


A.Abortion rates are high in developing countries where income levels are low (Jones).
B.Many health risks are associated with abortions (Elshtain)
C.Abortion can be either legal or illegal, but it depends on upon circumstances ad legislation of that country (Donohue).

Research objectives

In this paper, Focus will be on legal and illegal aspects of abortion (Tooley). We will analyze how abortion can affect human health in adverse or favorable manners. The major purpose of this topic is to analyze different ways, which can play its core role in order to avoid the illegal abortion (Thomson). It has found that abortion relates to the social matters and level of prosperity in developing countries (Stray-Pedersen). In this study, we will focus on the factors which are resulting in high abortion rates in developing countries. In such countries where income levels are low, abortion rates are high. People do not have enough resource to feed their children, so they prefer abortion because they are unable to fulfill the basic needs of their children

Body paragraphs
England, Wales of Great Britain and Scotland have laws of legal abortion till 24 weeks of pregnancy (Shah). In the US abortion became legal in 1973. In 1829, according to new rules in New York abortion become illegal. There are different types of abortion. Major classes and types of abortions include NHS abortion and Private abortion (Petchesky).

There are many risks associated with abortions. Abortion can result in Physical health problems. It had found that there are Low chances of getting pregnant again among those women who have an abortion in their past. Major complication includes the Hemorrhage, which can be caused because of abortion. Abortion can also become the cause of Damage to the cervix (Norris).

Developing countries have a high birth rate in comparison to developed countries. In developing countries exceeding population work as labor (Kero). People in developing countries are not much informed about the contraception and other birth control measures (Norris). Women in developing countries are not career oriented (Petchesky).

There are many factors, which can become the cause of the increase in the abortion rates. These factors are as follows:

I.Social factor that shows concept of sex after marriage

II.Increasing time interval between puberty and marriage

III.Financial problems (Norris).

IV.Career oriented women who do not have a child

We can avoid illegal abortion by adopting following ways:

I.Increasing sex education in society (Hahn).

II.Increase education about birth control measures

III.Controlling rate of unwanted pregnancies (Mukkavaara).

IV.Restrict public funding for abortion on federal level (Hahn)


I.Qualitative research

II.Evaluation of previous research works like journals and articles

III.Observation of scenario that calls for abortion


By summing up all it can be said that there are different factors which are leading to increasing in abortion rates so if we want to control abortion rates, then we have to account for all these factors, either these are social factors or economic factors. Proprieties of people can be different. Termination of pregnancy faces an ethical and moral violation. It has found that Reason of terminating a pregnancy can be different.

Works Cited

Craig, B. H., & OBrien, D. M. "Abortion and American politics." (1993).
Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. "The impact of legalized abortion on crime(No. w8004). ." National Bureau of Economic Research. (2000).
Elshtain, J. B. "Reflections on Abortion, Values, and the Family. ." Springer US. (1984): InAbortion (pp. 47-72).
Hahn, U., & Oaksford, M. "A Bayesian approach to informal argument fallacies. ." Synthese, (2006): 152(2), 207-236.
Jones, K., & Chaloner, C. " Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. ." Nursing standard, (2007): 21(37), 45-48.
Kero, A., Högberg, U., & Lalos, A. "Wellbeing and mental growth-long-term effects of legal abortion." Social Science & Medicine, (2004): 58(12), 2559-2569.
Mukkavaara, I., Öhrling, K., & Lindberg, I. "Women's experiences after an induced second trimester abortion. ." Midwifery, (2012): 28(5), e720-e725.
Norris, A., Bessett, D., Steinberg, J. R., Kavanaugh, M. L., De Zordo, S., & Becker, D. " Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences. ." Women's Health Issues, (2011): 21(3), S49-S54.

Petchesky, R. P. " Abortion and womans choice: the state sexuality and reproductive freedom." (1990).
Shah, I., & Åhman, E. " Age patterns of unsafe abortion in developing country regions." Reproductive health matters, (2004): 12(24), 9-17.
Stray-Pedersen, B., & Stray-Pedersen, S. "Etiologic factors and subsequent reproductive performance in 195 couples with a prior history of habitual abortion. ." American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, (1984): 148(2), 140-146.

Thomson, J. J. A defense of abortion. In Biomedical ethics and the law (pp. 39-54). Springer US, 1976.
Tooley, M. "Abortion and infanticide. ." Philosophy & Public Affairs, (1972): 37-65.

Abortion is a controversial concept that is still looking for some absolute agreement. It can bring physical and psychological problem for women.
I haven't seen the explanation of the psychological problem . Throughout the draft ,i have seen more of reference than your own ideas.Conclusion doesn't contains the reference of the findings and the research methodology has no method of analysis.One major failure I have seen here is essay hasn't cosidered the contemporary data and contemporary incidets. Abortion is most burning topic in developing countries but I haven't seen any fair analysis of situation there.You cannot have a fair paper deducting from data and finding from 30 year back.
Aug 4, 2016   #3
Hi Mohammed, WELCOME to the Essay Forum Team, we hope to assist you in each and every project you have by providing you with the most accurate and valuable feedback to strengthen your essay.

Further to your research, I believe you were able to create a well rounded one, your citations are of credible source, you also made sure that each and every part of the research is labeled accordingly, which is very crucial as this means that you are able to follow the fundamentals of writing a research paper.

However, I would like to enhance the conclusion part of the paper.

- By summingTo sum up,
- all itthat can be said that
- there are different factors which are leadingthat leads to increasing in abortion rates
- ProprietiesOpinions of people can be different. - and moral violation. It, however, it has been found that theReason of terminating a pregnancy can be differentdefinitely vary.

There you have it Mohammed, I hope the above remarks help in your revision and for future writing reference, mind the sentence structure that you associate in your essay as this will have a great impact in the overall outcome of your essay.
HI, Mohammed

... illegal aspects of abortion (Tooley).
... avoid the illegal abortion (Thomson).
... prosperity in developing countries (Stray-Pedersen)

1. You did fairly well on your essay. Your sentence structure was concise and prepared.
2. Your dates for APA format should be in your reference, as well as your first and last name of the author. For example, ( Kenneth Jones 2016)
3. Your source should appear before your next category of the topic.

Respectfully Stephanie Hunter
  Closed ✓

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