Hassan007 1 / - Feb 13, 2024 #1Hello Everyone, I prepared an essay's draft as a part of university application. I'd be great if someone can comment over the areas of the improvement. Note the essay is the comparison between two types of electric vehicles. Note: The topic of the essay is chosen by the applicant.The contemporary drastic increase in the carbon footprint of our planet observed over the last century or so has forcibly yet collectively led us to seeking sustainable alternatives to non-renewable sources of energy used in our everyday lives. Foregoing Internal Combustion Vehicles (ICVs) which are one of the prime drivers of our world's pollution today is a prime example of this endeavor. Electric Vehicles (EVs) seem like the most reasonable replacement to them. However, very much like ICVs, EVs too are varied and segmented on a plethora of different factors.Modern EVs for all intended purposes fall in either of two categories: Battery Electric (BEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric (FCEVs) vehicles. They differ in terms of their respective technologies, feasibility, economics and future outlook. In simple terms, FCEVs boost a fuel cell powered by hydrogen and oxygen that react to give water (and energy utilized to run the vehicle. BEVs store electrical energy from charging and use it instead to power the vehicle.FCEVs, despite of being costly to BEVs are definitely a step ahead when it comes to the energy density per kg of the fuel. The fact that hydrogen can be compressed at higher pressure makes the two technologies worlds apart. Coupled with hydrogen being lighter, this difference culminates into more miles on the road with a higher fuel economy.Both the technologies can be stated as 'green' provided that inputs were renewably sourced. However, if we compare the end-to-end efficiency of the systems, FCEVs do post disadvantages. The energy losses associated with fuel cells and auxiliaries plus the energy dissipations during gas compression and transportation pose notable reductions in the overall energy efficiency obtained. This comes off as no more than 25-38% and pales in comparison to BEVs with a 60-70% efficiency level.Another factor is the need for infrastructure provisions for both the projects. It's quite easy to decentralize the charging mechanism for BEVs in the form of home-based charging. But doing the same thing for FCEVs would be a challenging thing to do. Hydrogen generation, storage and pumping isn't as advanced or safe as conventional fuels yet.While BEVs' long charging times and less mileage due to low energy density may put them at a stark disadvantage, the fact remains that more energy resources need to be pooled to achieve the same output with FCEVs. Yet, the integration of BEVs into a larger canvas that includes heavy machinery, loading trucks, ships, buses and even rockets doesn't seem very promising probably because that requires a system that ensures a higher energy density. And that's where FCEVs come in.Today, we are indeed at a unique crossroads, never experienced in the human history. We are fortunate enough to have a direction. More rigorous and fruitful research is needed in enabling a better infrastructure and safer storage for FCEVs just like more robust, sleek, and lighter batteries could definitely narrow the limitations on the challenges with BEVs. Only time will tell which ever one truly triumph.