FredParisFrance 61 / 7 Jul 22, 2008 #1Hello,Could you please read my essay and give me some feedback?The prompt is:Select a topic that interests you from this week's reading material and write an anatomy and physiology "lecture" (300 to 500 words) to your classmates; describing the topic to them as if your were the instructor teaching the class.Thank you in advanceFrederic----------------The sources have not been integrated yet.---Since sexual dimorphism is rather obvious when examining an individual's reproductive system, one could assume that variations between males and females are also present in their skeletal system. Although osteological analyses lying on the study of minute details make possible the differentiation between males and females, one can easily notice that similitude are more prevalent than divergences when looking an adult human skeleton.On the one hand, Homo sapiens sapiens, both males and females, have evolved towards obligated bipedalism. Consequently, males and females' skeletal systems have similarly been composed in many ways. First, the inferior view of the cranium highlights the fact that the position of the foramen magnum beneath the skull is the same in both males and females. Second, males and females' vertebral column has four characteristic curves when examined in the anatomical position. From its superior part to its inferior part, there is the cervical curve (a forward one, formed by the seven cervical vertebrae), the thoracic curve (a backward one formed by the twelve thoracic vertebrae), the lumbar curve (a forward one formed by the five lumbar vertebrae), and the sacral curve (a backward one formed by the five fused sacral vertebrae). Third, the human pelvic (hip) girdle is shaped in the form of a basin thanks to two large hip bones (also known as coxal bones) constituting a solid and stable basis for the vertebral column. Thus, the pelvis participates in the protection of the pelvic viscera in addition to the connection of the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. Furthermore, the ilium is short and broad to stabilize weight transmission during the walk thanks to the lower of the centre of gravity. Fourth, the lower limbs have been more elongated in human beings than in great apes such as gorillas, comprising about twenty percent of the an individual's body weight among human beings contrary to about eleven percent among gorillas. Fifth, knees permit the complete extension of the leg during walk contrary to other hominids whose particular joints are not designed for the full straightening of the lower limbs. Sixth, human beings' big toe is large to preserve the individuals' balance during the walk and their feet are characterized by distinctive longitudinal arch forms taking part in the absorption of shock and in the propulsion of during the walk, necessary for fluid bipedal locomotion.Finally, albeit the Homo sapiens sapiens's evolution has progressed towards a sexual reproduction favouring the birth of large-brained newborns, which has strategically modelled the pelvis to facilitate the birth without hampering the individuals' bipedal locomotion, similar morphological patterns seen in the axial and appendicular skeletons stress the significance of the constraints of bipedalism on the human skeletal system whatever the sex may be.