Globalization leads to a similarity of nations and the increase in the economy of countries. In the lecture it is mentioned that there are some main causes of globalization and its influence on the countries is positive. The lecturer mentioned about the reasons of globalization and implications for marketing. First of all, flight is defined as a key factor of globalization because its popularity and affordability has increased. Also, it promotes exchanged values and attitudes among cultures. Secondly, news and entertainment industry creates a global culture by the impact of the Internet, TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, and films. Advertising is a key element of news and entertainment industry which helps to create a global society. Advertisement works through the media, a potential marketing tool, which spreads ideas incredibly widely, quickly, and effectively. The third and final cause of globalization which is highlighted by lecturer is politics. He suggests thinking specifically about the destruction of social and economic barriers through political activity and international agreements. For example, European Union: a group of countries with quite different and diverse cultures and traditions have come together in the spirit of cooperation. EU appeared to be consulting and acting in unison on issues like the environment crime, world poverty and so on. News channels like CNN helps create a feeling that there is a common culture of humanity by plucking them in the same direction. In order to avoid bad implications of globalization marketing professionals need to be aware of the local cultures values and buying behaviors, whereas, deciding strategies. Global and local culture is sometimes referred to in terms of the universal and particular, respectively. Moreover, another challenge is communication styles across the cultures. There are "high-context" cultures and "low-context" cultures. Written features of communication is used in "high-context" cultures whilst, more simple and spoken is used in "low-context" cultures. Lastly, it was mentioned some suggestions about what not to do for successful Marketing with examples of instant coffee and condensed soup. To summarize, it can be said that globalization is developing by flights, news and entertainment, advertisement, politics step by step and as an outcome, there can be some consequences for marketing. In addition, the basic description of globalization, there is also influences of it over some countries. Namely, Manzella (2006) explains that trade and globalization have improved developing countries instead of harming them. According to the World Bank, 24 developing countries including China, India and Mexico, have achieved higher growth in incomes, longer life expectancy and better schooling from globalization at the same time, the economies of least globalized countries, like Iran, Pakistan and North Korea dropped or stabilized. Furthermore, the trade consultant mentioned that weakness to get involved in globalization is the basic problem in poor countries. The WTO reports that "trade liberalization" is essential for poor states to catch up with rich ones if they want to have a brighter future. Mexican President Zedillo informed that poor states can resolve their poverty only by participating in production for export markets and opening themselves to the introduction of foreign goods, investment and technology which means participating in globalization. According to the statistics, open economies double in size every 16 years, while closed economies doubled every 100 years. Globalization has had negative consequences on some developing countries with badly established economies or a lack of sound legal or financial systems. As a result, anti-globalists can make globalization the scapegoat for many of the world's problems. According to the facts, world infant mortality rates decreased by almost half, adult literacy increased more than a third, primary school enrollment rose and the average life span shot up 11 years, when policies supporting globalization from 1970s to 2001. In conclusion, it can be generalized that trade and globalization can be a contributor to the resolution of a set of problems like poverty, illiteracy, mortality. Also, it will bring many gains for the income of people and the economy and many countries. Having looked at two sources, it can be witnessed that two sources can give typical advantages of globalization. The similarity between two sources is that both mention globalization serves for people's favor, bringing many positive effects.
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